Arquivo para June, 2020

(Português) Da episteme grega a fenomenologia de Husserl

16 Jun

Sorry, this entry is only available in Brazilian Portuguese.


Covid still advances in Brazil

15 Jun

The scourge of the pandemic that could have united Brazil now turns fear into terror, rates continue to advance even though the number of deaths remains on a plateau around 1,000 daily deaths, with up and down variations.

The result that gives a sentence now is the contamination rate per thousand inhabitants, and winter arrives in the country next week, cities that opened the trade start to retreat, shows a faltering policy between saving the economy or reducing the number of deaths, and the political struggle.

The polarization that has existed since the elections threatens to return with more radicality, there is no scenario that gives us hope, nor of reducing mortality, which should be a priority, nor of resolving the political crisis that could encourage and lead to a strong policy of social isolation.

Thus, the country is becoming the most critical case and contributes to an international isolation, those who wanted to save the economy have not yet understood that a serious policy to combat the covid would minimize economic results, save lives and perhaps unite a country that is increasingly divided. .

There is no lack of commentators at least malicious, I read from a famous media philosopher that afterwards there will be joy and euphoria, I would like to believe this, but as unemployment alone is already huge.

If there are no sensible minds and interested in saving lives (which also minimizes economic costs) we will navigate in confusing situations and that the data already show, there is no sign that the invite can retreat, we defended in early May the #lockdown, if it comes now it will come as a measure of despair, and without popular support, the 3 months of poor quarantine, exhausted the population’s spirits.

It is not a conflict caused by the media, by the opposition or by ideology, it is a lack of wisdom and wisdom, we put those who are at the forefront of the battle: doctors, nurses and rescuers, in addition to workers in essential services in a difficult situation, tired of us ask: stay at home, have not been heard.

The hope is that the disease itself stationed on the plateau of a thousand daily deaths will start to recede.


The exhaustion of humanism and co-immunity

12 Jun

When Peter Sloterdijk gave his lecture “rules for the human park” on July 17, 1999 in a colloquium dedicated to Heidegger and Lévinas, in the castle of Elmau in Bavaria, despite having theologians in the audience the greatest reaction was from the media, to affirming the emergence of an “anthropotechnical” and genetic manipulation, echoes were heard in France and also in Brazil where a report was published in the “Mais” section of the Daily Folha de São Paulo.

What the philosopher warned, in his language rich in metaphors to make his intricate philosophy clearer, stated that the work of human domestication had failed, in short this was his response to Heidegger’s Letter on Humanism, and his lecture would become book.

Then came other controversies, about ecology for example, he stated that “we will oscillate between a state of manic waste and depressive parsimony”, in a lecture entitled “about the fury of titans in the 21st century”, that is, between two opposing forces> minimalism and maximalism.

also spoke in that lecture on the decline of the concept of ethics: “… once came from a sense of obligation, virtue. Responsibility only becomes an important category when people do things whose consequences they cannot control ”and warns that the term responsibility is new in philosophy, also in the humanities.

In response to an interview with the newspaper El País, the philosopher who created the concept of co-immunity, said that the current situation will require “the need for a deeper practice of mutualism, that is, generalized mutual protection, as I say in Você Tem que Mudar Sua Vida ”, book without translation into Portuguese.

In addition to the need for what the current situation as a whole, which reveals a global imbalance from nature to the social, indicates that external factor.



Eucharist and the aorgic effect

11 Jun

Just as we came from inorganic nature (be it the clay as those who believe, either due to the evolution of the first primitive species) the aortic evolution of the world, man with his hand will plant the vine and with his work he will make bread, ancestral and present food in all cultures.

The aortic unveiling of the virgin who conceives the Son-God in her womb and recreates her own creation in her mother’s womb, and then will manifest itself at Pentecost on the coming of the Apostles as the second aorgic manifestation, as stated by St. Gregory Nazianzo on this moment: “God’s love is not idle; it works great things, if it really exists ”.

This unveiling will be completed as a testament to the Son-God as a covenant with men in the Eucharist: “in remembrance of me you will do it”, the last aorgic manifestation of Jesus among men, the Supreme Being becomes a Body in bread and wine : the Eucharist.

About this fact Augustine of Hippo says: “The Lord has entrusted His Body and Blood to us in such things that are reduced to unity from many others, because bread is one, although it consists of many grains, and wine it is made from many grapes”.

Now the Trinitarian God reveals himself in the Sacred Body of the Eucharist in drink and cooking made by human hands, the wine made from the vine and the baked bread from the wheat, and as it is said in Cantico dos Canticos: “Eat, friends, and drink; and intoxicate yourselves, dear friends, ”the Corpus Christis party should bring joy to millions, but the pandemic still limits the party.

Because God deprived us of such a great feast, would there be an even greater aorgic manifestation? Could the relationship between mother Mary and her Son still say something more sublime for humanity? the suffering of millions of people and the fear of this pandemic may prepare something even greater.

As the poet Hölderlin says: “where there is fear there is salvation”, but it is not yet.




Matris in gremio, blood relationship and aorgic

10 Jun

To understand Sloterdijk’s digression 10, it is necessary to understand its relationship with the tragedy, and a text that is certainly known to the philosopher is Hörderlin’s interpretation of the Greek tragedy Oedipus King of Sophocles, where he uses the aorgic term for the search for Epic to know who it is, the more it seeks the less conscious consciousness it becomes towards tragedy.

The tragedy is that father Laio, had heard from the oracle at Delphi, that his son would kill him and marry his mother Jocasta, the king hands him over to a poor shepherd to kill him, but the shepherd raises him and then he goes stop at the hands of Polybius, king of Corinth who raised him as a son, but the tragedy is fulfilled and then Oedipus kills King Laius who was his real father and marries Jocasta when he becomes aware of the blind truth, the tragedy has more details, here it is only to understand the aorgic.

However, Sloterdijk reverses this story and resumes Christian Mariology, in his tour 10 Matris in gremio (mother’s lap or lap), where after analyzing the text De humanitae conditionis in miseria by Lotário de Segni (1160-1216) that would later become if Pope Innocence III, who says that the liquid that would feed the child is the same as the menstruation that would be interrupted with pregnancy.

Sloterdijk, even though he does not believe that there are religions (so he does not have this question), will say “there is no doubt that Jesus, even in gremio, must have been provided with a different diet plan” (Sloterdijk, 2016, p. 557), and will use Question 31 from the third book of the Summa Teologica de Aquinas.

Aquinas’ argument is that “not even a better blood would have been enough to generate the body of Christ, because, by mixing with human semen, it becomes generally impure” (idem), and “… the communion of Jesus with on the contrary, the mother should be realized through blood that deserves to be classified as particularly chaste and pure ”, and quotes Tomás:

“… Because, by the action of the Holy Spirit, this blood is collected from the Virgin’s lap and formed into a fetus. That is why it is said that the body of Christ was formed by the most chaste and pure blood of the virgin.” (Aquino, Suma Theológica III, 31, 5, 3, SP: Loyola, 2001-2002).

Before Tomas de Aquinas, John Damasceno, who has already spoken of the Trinitarian pericoresis, will take this blood relationship between Maria and her fetus to the extreme, quoted by Sloterdijk: “Given that pericoresis always implies the primacy of the relationship over the outside place or precisely because the relationship itself founds the place where those who interpenetrate were found, Mary’s body cannot be buried after death in a usual way ”(SLOTERDIJK, 2016, p. 558).

And so the idea was born that Mary was taken to heaven, but it is also the birth 11 centuries before being accepted, the dogma of her Immaculate Conception (which by popular use became Conceição), thus “it is the very matrix of God who miraculously offered the sculptor the material of his sculpture, and to God the material to become a man… ” (Damasceno apud Sloterdijk, 2016, p. 558), which thus pre-announces the aorgic action of Mary with Jesus and God-Father, as a pericoresis in extremis (in the photo, also used by Sloterdijk, Virgin with Overture, late 14th century, Cluny Museum in Paris).

SLOTERDIJK, P. (2014) Bubbles: Spheres Volume I: Microspherology. UK: Semiotext(e).


Between philosophy and mysteries

09 Jun

The relationship between theology and philosophy has been lost for more than 5 centuries, when some serious theologian decides to talk about philosophy it is to criticize it or to admit it uncritically and then he loses his faith.

I read the testimony of a former American Methodist pastor, who wrote: “I gave up Christianity because it affirms a lot and explains very little. We know so little about the Cosmos we’re floating in – our home is a solar system among trillions – but theologians brag and postulate about God, as if they have some way of knowing all of this, ”David Madison, Final Sermon in a Pandemic Team.

These are questions that many people ask, my spiritual experience always involved something that took my feet off the ground, although I strive to keep them there, I like critics of today’s religiosity, like Sloterdijk because they wake me up, and their disbelief in the The humanism of our time is a guide to my current issues, as in the pandemic and the problems that surround it.

When I think of conversion, I think first of mine and then of those who are with me on the walk and then of the “sleeping” Christians. we immersed ourselves in pericoresis, lent the text to some friends and they returned it to me with comments, I did my own pericoresis, my fusion of horizons.

And I had some answers that I didn’t imagine, one of them about what the future of humanism will be, we discovered in the middle of the pandemic solidarity as well as racism, domestic violence and the insensitivity of some in the face of the scourge, in the figure above The cross in the mountains by Caspar David Friedrich (ca 1812).

The answer and new question I found was in the reading of a text by Sloterdijk, which he calls an aortic relationship, is in the Matrix in grêmio: a mariological whim, he is not a theologian, alias he says that religions do not exist.

My question is the relation of the organic, all nature and humanity and from it the divine pericoresis, but founded on the human relationship, and as if he were a theologian, Sloterdijk answers in Digression 10 of the first volume of the Spheres Trilogy:

“Matris in gremio: A mariological whim” (page 556) in which the aortic interpenetration is combined with the organic in pregnancy, in Mary, of the Son of God, in which the two share the same spirit and the same blood, and both in Trinity and in the Virgin’s womb, interpenetration is surreal, in addition to pericoresis.

My question, what would happen if there was an aortic relationship, the organic in a real, lasting inorganic phenomenon, visible to every human being and not just to mystics? Of course this did not happen, but if it did?

SLOTERDIJK, P. (2014) Bubbles: Spheres Volume I: Microspherology. UK: Semiotext(e).






Brazil: incert future of pandemic

08 Jun

Problems with social isolation, difficulties to take tougher measures, now Brazil is plunging into an uncertain future: there is a lack of data, a clear policy and planning.

The official data will now depend on the seriousness of the regional Health Secretariats and the hard work of doctors and hospitals, and the planning of the responsibility of local authorities, at the most general level there is a proposal for a planned opening, but it may be disordered.

The available data indicate an increase during the week that passed over a thousand deaths reaching a peak of 1473, which retreated at the weekend to the level of a thousand deaths.

The curve we have drawn seems to reflect the scenario of instability, although lagged from 7 to 14 days, as deaths are the reflection of infections in the past days, they are the real data, because even if the degree of infection is falling below one , one person infects another, this does not mean that contagion and lethality have reduced, in the Brazilian case it is necessary to understand the internalization of the cases and the regional resources for the fight, as is the case of the Amazon and poor regions.

The pressure of the economic groups to open the market, the political uncertainty and the game of alliances that is made due to this scenario, take the focus of the pandemic and move to the political scenario, a sad picture for the country.

Despite large groups that carry out solidarity actions, the effort of doctors and nurses, the lesson we are drawing from this pandemic as a people is the worst possible, we are not fond of the simple people, not even with many deaths and the fatigue of almost 3 months of pandemic.

Some countries will emerge better from the pandemic as a nation, Brazil will not, we were unable to join forces, to be supportive nationally with the pains of a scourge and inconsistent with our love that we declare to the country, it remains for us to do our part and hope that the virus recedes



Saint John Damascene and pericoresis

05 Jun

Even for those who do not believe in the concept of pericoresis, it is important because it makes the idea of ​​relationship something more substantial, although it is already admitted that man is a relational being, the relationship is full of dualisms and non-Trinitarian interpretations (in the case of Christians) and can lead to indifference.

After resolving the Trinitarian dogma by the Cappadocian priests, who explained that God is One and Triune, are people (hypostasis) and maintain unity (ousia), Damasceno will dwell on the relationship between the three people and create a term also used in philosophy: pericoresis, interpenetration in relationships, that is, the possibility of listening to the Other not just out of respect, which would already be a step, but trying to penetrate and understand the reasons for his thinking.

It was João Damasceno (675-749) who studied this relationship of pericoresis, the term emerges proposing the articulation between the unity and the communion of the Trinity, it seems simple to say this, but difficult to understand and practice, since most relationships exclude the Other which is different, be it of color, race, creed or culture, far ahead of his time João Damasceno was a friend of the Saracens.

In his historical theological journey, he sought to find something to explain the relationship, which was in accordance with what the scriptures said of God and his relevance in history: the articulation between the concept of God that is triune and one, but each one being a natural person (prosopon) and God, João structured the intra-Trinitarian way, based on the Greek concept of person: hypostasis.

In the Greek word it means hypo, which is sub, underneath, and stasis, which is sub-posited; as if it were a support, but in the divine relationship this concept should be expanded and explained.

 The term pericoresis emerges in this Patristic Theology, as the articulation between unity and communion of the Trinity, but going further, so the Father is one in the Son and the Son one in the Father, and both are one in the Holy Spirit, so there is an interpretation, it is more what a pure relationship it is to be in the Other.

The problem with some religious interpretations is the static relationship of the three, which is the dualistic relationship that comes from idealistic philosophy, where subject and object are separated and are relational by a type of transcendence, which actually has nothing to do with the Divine mystery nor is it religious.

In a deeper spiritual asceticism is the effort to understand and love the Other who is different, who is not my mirror, does not have my concepts and judgments, does not classify the world as I do, the great tragedy of our days is the lack of pericoresis , and thus of Trinitarian relations.

I think that the pandemic shows us this, even though there is a great pain that kills everyone and that sensitizes many people, that opens the heart to look at the suffering of the other, there are those that close themselves in groups, ideas and schemes to not look at the pain , the hunger and despair that the pandemic has generated, or we wake up together or perish together, staying in our trench is non-relational


The Trinity and the Cappadocian Fathers

04 Jun

The Korean-German philosopher Byung Chul Han of “The society of fatigue”, started from the analysis of Vita Activa by Hanna Arendt (we translate Vita from Latin, for life until now), explaining that it starts from the prevalence in the Christian life of the contemplative life, clarifies in a note that she seeks “a mediation between vita active and contemplative life”, and even though she is not a Christian she uses the passage described by São Gregório: “we have to know: when we demand a good life program, that we move from vita active to vita contemplativa, then, it is often useful if the soul returns from the contemplative life to the active one, in such a way that it is called the contemplation that has been lit in the heart and transmits all its perfection to the activity. ” (HAN, 2015, p. 39)

The rush runs from day to day does not allow this balance, but in times of pandemic we were called to rethink our social life, our relationship with the people of our home and also consumption and solidarity with those who in these times lost jobs, spend limitations and are vulnerable.

However St. Gregory has another bias in his thinking about the trinity, with his friends also cappadocians, these priests were forced to make a self-defense of the charge of Tritheism (3 gods) that weighed on them and then three great theologians of Cappadocia (Asia Minor): St. Basil the Great (330-379), his blood brother Gregory of Nissa (+349), resolved the issue.

Seen by Greek philosophy, which dominated Western culture, “Mia Ousia treis hypostasis”, means that ousia guarantees unity while substantia et tres persone ensures that each of the three people is unique, and perhaps the most difficult to understand that there are in fact three distinct people.

Saint Basil was the first to establish the distinction by saying that in God there are three people or three hypostases, as we have already written, means the prosopon, which is what for the Greeks the person.

As we wrote last week there was a neglect of the Trinitarian relationship, in philosophical terms it is the dualism of thought, the inability to understand situations that are always from different worldviews, but that must maintain unity.

In religious terms, it means the loss of relational capacity, solidarity and fraternity with the other, seeking a religion that is sometimes Manichaean, sometimes fundamentalist, without any appeal to unity (ousia) and respect for the dignity of the person (hypostases), in short, the relationship Trinitarian.




Translatio studiorum and writing techniques

03 Jun

The long period that went from the beginning of registered writing, scriptura, until the appearance of copyists, called mixed orality, is called translatio studiorum, where writing itself will undergo many technical variations, and in them stand out São Jerônimo who compiled and elaborated the first version of the Bible.

During this period, the so-called Cappadocian priests stand out, Gregorio de Nissa (335, died in 394), his brother Basilio the Great, and Gregório de Nazianzeno, whose writing is important for what both Hannah Arendt and Byung Chull Han will analyze in the vita active, and here the information is linked in times of new media, but it will be done during the week.

Translation Studiorum, period of transfer of knowledge, from one era to another when the techniques of culture are changing, and thus their anthropotechnics, between different cultures and religions, especially in the West and the Middle East, where there is the culture of the original of the book of three great Abrahamic religions (comes from Father Abraham), the Koran, the Torah and the Bible.

The translatio thus corresponds to the period of peak and decadence of Greek-Christian thought, which has more links than is apparent, and which would be preserved and would continue in the Western world in the form of a dominant and influential philosophical and Trinitarian and Neoplatonic doctrine.

De Trinitate de Saint Augustine is as revealing as his popular book Confessions, and Plotinus’ influence cannot be denied, nor can it be overvalued, it is not denied because Plotino’s conception of One of the soul is essential, and overvalued because Augustine’s conversion displaces him from Plato’s deontological center, Sumo Bem, to the ontological: the person and Trinitarian of Christian thought.

However, Cappadocian priests bring concepts that can be explored in the light of current thinking, Ousía (οὐσία, correct pronunciation is “ouceea”), is translated a noun from the Greek language giving rise to essence and substance, but semse feminine and conjugation in the present participle of the verb “to be”, the Heideggerian interpretation is “present” or present (being-present).

We will also explore the meaning of the word hypostasis, from the Greek prosopon, it comes from Greek theology with the meaning of person, and in conjunction with ousia it gives a meaning to the Trinitarian.