Arquivo para August, 2020

Viruses and aorgic mutations

31 Aug

Certainly or that we are a physical structure and DNA not always like this, also our relationship with differentiated diseases and viruses, “childhood” diseases such as measles, mumps and rubella become common and a triple vaccine has become mandatory, fighting these are more common for years that in indigenous tribes and a few could still be deadly, because their physical structures are different.

Certainly something like the inorganic world that influences the physical happens, it seems scary, more trivial to say that the physical world preceded its organic year, because its origin occurred in an aortic mutation.

Man did not always exist, attested by scientific studies that homo sapiens appeared in East Africa about 300 thousand years ago (Hubrin, Ben-Ncer, 2017), was the first one back in the eastern Mediterranean 100 thousand years ago (Khan, 2015) and 60,000 years ago it was to the west, it can be passed to China about 80,000 years ago (Sherwell, 2015), therefore due to variations in fighting, physical structure and tolerance to certain events, certainly due to dietary changes , climatic and also variations in the physical structure according to the adaptation to the environment, is also logical, of the primordial structure of man formed from the physical world.

Much research on viruses affecting our previously studied foramen, such as Mollivirus sibericum, classified as a “giant virus” because it can be seen under a simple optical microscope, too, or Pithovirus Sibericum was studied by a French team from the National Center for Scientific Research French, assimilated by an “evolution” and transformation of two viruses and how they historically affect or are the home of nature, because now more and more viruses appear with different characteristics, also an aortic change, so it can also affect a nature, a physical part of the planet and also a history.

In the conflict between reason and understanding, several authors have dealt with the aortic issue from aesthetic to physical analysis, for example, used these themes Schiller and Hölderling and appropriation here, to make inferences about the inorganic (virus is not an organism) and demonstrate that the organic totality (organic holism) is not prevalent over the inorganic (aortic holism), which supposes a regime of ataxia and disorder, as well as systemic holism, the supposed single discourse that invaded sociology, Dilthey’s fashion history ( Gadamer contests it) and the current polarization is nothing but systemic holism, idealism and pre-quantum physics.

By this theory of aorgic holism it can be assumed that not only can the human physical organic structure be modified, but even the structure of the planet, the retraction of activities, among them the thousands of daily trips by airplanes, the non use of Fossil fuels are already changing (for the better) the structure of seas and land, so the very structure of the planet may change, and nature as a whole will react, it may be a surprise, but nature will help us.



HUBRIN, Jacques Hublin; Ben-Ncer, Abdelouahed «Scientists discover the oldest Homo sapiens fossils at Jebel Irhoud, Morocco»Nature.  2017, Access: august 20, 2020. Available in: .

KHAN, Amina. Discovery of 47 teeth in Chinese cave changes picture of human migration out of Africa. Los Angeles Times, Science. 14 oct. 2015, Acesso em: 20 de Agosto de 2020, Disponível em:, Phillip. Ancient teeth found in China reveal early human migration out of Africa. The Telegraph, 2015. Available in: The telegraph (private access), 


Fear, death and salvation

28 Aug

The society of tiredness, the search for productivity and fear is not that of the pandemic, it already existed before this health event, what happened now is that, at least people who have not lost their senses, fear of death is present and hangs over the whole of society, and ignoring death is not a good psychological attitude.

This is how psychologists who dealt with this issue related to children say, it is also true that fear can lead to panic that is not healthy either, but explaining and helping society to understand the limitations, even the production of the economy helps everyone, and the questioning the hyperproductivity that led society and nature to the door of exhaustion is also healthy, but now comes the economic crisis and what to do with it, again be sensible.

The poet Hölderling wrote “where there is fear, there is salvation”, at the beginning of the pandemic we thought that it was possible to treat the disease evenly, to reduce a little the activity that would help society to rebalance itself, but after many months the confinement also revealed itself problematic, but the fear of death and a certain blindness of not wanting to see the consequences continues in society, death is just a fatality, and not a possibility that takes us to care, care for life in every way.

Salvation resides in this fear, the fearless child is reckless, and the adult too often, does not think and does not act in favor of life, the preservation of self and others, thinks selfishly and this does not lead to salvation, it takes when dying more tragic than the fatality of death, even dying of fear, so the healthy and balanced is to deal with death, and those who need to remain socially active take the necessary care, but salvation, the rebalancing of the human.

This is at stake, what was the theme before the pandemic, is now reappearing in a tragic way and it is necessary to think about nature, production and day-to-day life that led to diseases such as panic, Burnout syndrome and the society of tiredness, to produce happiness we must not go to extreme tiredness and the exhaustion of nature and productive forces.

The very death of God, which for many seems like a huge tragedy, fundamentalists say the opposite and the Pharisees that we should not “spread fear”, when Jesus warns the type of death that would die, Peter says that God never allows such a thing , and Jesus’ reaction is at least curious (Mt 16, 23): “Jesus, however, turned to Peter and said:“ Go far, Satan! You are a stumbling block to me, because you do not think the things of God, but the things of men! ”, And little reflection is made on this passage, at most saying that it is because I was going to die on the cross, but at that moment nothing it was still known.

The lesson of the pandemic, the fear of death and dying, which is the hardest, is that there is no salvation without suffering, sometimes even bloodshed, the post-pandemic must provoke a discussion and a much more serious thought than it has already done. it has happened so far, conservatives say life should return to normal and others say: “and the fight against the pandemic must be changed”, that there were many mistakes, but the essential problem is to change inhuman behavior and social structures.



The primordial sphere

27 Aug

Peter Sloterdijk’s surprising book Sphere I among many new concepts, brings in Chapter 7, entitled “The Sirens Stage: About the first sonospheric alliance”, from page 433 to 470, but the tours are equally interesting, a treatise on original relationship with life, with the Other and with psychology around the issue.

It makes a fundamental analogy with the social sciences: “psychology can cultivate its research on the twins, and the social sciences can pursue its chimera, the homo sociologicus; but for the philosophically reformed science of man, it is peer research and the theory of dual space that are fundamental. Even what recent philosophers have called human existence should no longer be understood as the exit of the lonely individual into an open indeterminate space, nor as the private stay of the mortal in nothing ”(page 433-434), and here his relationship with the death that has been themed this week.

Before talking about reciprocity and dual tension between individuals, ask an essential question about resonance to develop your “sonospheric alliance”, quote Socrates to talk about inner resonance thanks to which “Socrates hears your demon intervene dissuasively in his conversations with himself  ? ” (p. 435), but he will also speak of the “attentive, so-called immaculate reciprocity, which allows the Angel of the Annunciation – which most often appears on the left side – to say the impossible to Mary’s ears without her resignation becoming a refusal ? ” (page 435), and below it will say “the inner listening is always linked to a change of attitude, passing from a one-dimensional hearing attentive to the alarm and from a distance, to an overfly hearing, apprehended in a polymorphic way” (idem).

It misses the texts of Ulysses of Odyssey (we have already done a historical comparison with the Ulysses of James Joyce in a post), it will sweep the lines and songs, going through icons, sacred books, texts by patriarchs, hymns and classics “in which” we recognize cultural potentials that have survived ”(p. 436), certainly from where he also got his“ mermaid stage ”from the chapter title, he will make a fair and long analysis of the Odyssey as “resonance ” developing some of his Cantos.

The central point of this chapter is   of the most subtle resonance games ”(page 462), to say that there resides what is its original resonance, and states that what“ we call the soul is, at its most sensitive core, a resonance system exercised during communication audio-vocal of the mother-child prenatal sphere ”(page 462), there is developed the primordial relationship with the Other.

“When the future mother speaks to the interior, she enters the primitive scene of free communication with the Other interior” (idem), where “the brightness of the mother’s voice, well before it reappears in her eyes, prepares the child for its reception in the world; it is only by listening to the most intimate greeting that she can agree with the insurmountable advantage of being herself ”(idem), it is this intimacy“ in her first exercise, it is a transference relationship ”(idem).

And “her model is not the learned by the symmetrical alliance of the twins, individuals of identical opinions … but by the inexorably asymmetrical communion between the maternal voice and the fetal ear ”(page 463) (in n the image of Anita Flatzer, Ulcherrima, from Human Time Anatomy. photographed from the Federal Museum of Pathological Anatomy, Vienna) (in book pag. 467).

Thus, the search for the twin, for symmetrical or even identical opinions is not a relationship, neither as the intimate world that already involves the relationship with the Other, nor with the different, asymmetrical and even hostile external world, it is a relationship “since always outside -de-si-em-si: the voice that greets, when addressing this intimate co-listener ”(p. 463), even though Sloteridjk is a thinker for whom religions do not even exist, I would say that it is a high text spirituality.

It states, at this point, that I consider it practically central about “listening to the other”, that when speaking of the primordial fetal relationship, it sees it as the one where “there is no trace of narcissism in this relationship, no illegitimate enjoyment of oneself for a deceptive short -circuit in the relationship with yourself. What distinguishes this relationship is an almost unlimited delivery from each other, as well as the fact that the two sources of stimulus intersect almost without any fissures” (page 463).

The relationship of war, of the almost exclusion of the Other, are the reflexes of an extreme individualism, of enjoyment at the expense of the Other, and even of his life, which the pandemic could lead to an intransigent defense of life seems to be placed at the other extreme, the elimination of the Other, the different and the fragile.

SLOTERDIJK, Peter. (2016) Esferas I: bolhas (José Oscar de Almeida Marques, Trad.). São Paulo: Estação Liberdade.






Conspiracy of fear or of silence

26 Aug

The pandemic generated anguish and fear in the face of death and health concerns, the virus has become a fear for all serious people, but not talking about the present and future danger and possibilities of this pandemic can be a “fear conspiracy” yet bigger.

Some authors have already spoken of the “conspiracy of silence” that affected society before the pandemic, Böemer and Adorno are two classic authors who touched on the topic of death, I became aware of this issue on my trip to Portugal, where the topic is treated in a diametrical way opposite to Brazil, and the pandemic brought the theme back.

We have already touched on the historical and sociological roots of the Greek tragedy, particularly in the texts by Nietzsche and Hölderling (see the post), but now the question is whether we speak of the pandemic and cause more fear and panic or we avoid and enter a kind of “conspiracy of silence ”, The one that goes from generation to generation, preventing a child from seeing death, not commenting on someone’s illness and death.

The silence related to death is more profound than dying, which is taken as a natural fact of life, but which should only be considered when the hypothesis does exist, so it does not make sense for a child or a young person, also for me it was a taboo because I imagined that the natural biological cycle: being born, growing, aging and dying was broken, or inter-broken, so death seems more “natural” than dying, the opposite event to becoming, becoming .

The proximity, almost daily with death, continues on the other hand with the convenience of not affecting “everyone”, but it is too inhumane, and this made me rethink once more about dying, previously questioned for children and young people, now I also think about elderly people abandoned their luck and their comorbidities.

The “conspiracy of silence” is that mitigation of dying, trying to remove fear of suffering, degeneration, loneliness and abandonment, the idea is to make man deprived of his “death” as some authors say (Carvalho, 1994), using the man deprived of his death, of his humanity (14,15), with euphemisms or allusions to false situations (he traveled, he is with grandma, etc.) to keep her away from the world of the living and the fatality of dying.

It is cruel to think about dying, but more cruel not to speak and not to mention that many are dying, that it is possible that fewer people will die, and that in addition to prevention, we should all dream of remedies that can separate us from this night of suffering that involves all of us. humanity, to speak of him is to show solidarity.


Adorno Y. Conversando com a criança sobre a morte. Campinas (SP): Psy, 1994; 20 p. 12. Araújo PVR, Vieira MJ. As atitudes do homem frente a morte e o morrer. Texto & Contexto, Florianópolis (SC) 2001 set/dez; 10(3): 101-17.

Böemer MR. A morte e o morrer. São Paulo: Cortêz; 1986.

Carvalho MMMJ, coordenadora. Introdução à Psiconcologia. Campinas (SP): Psy II; 1994.


Mystery is not ignorance

25 Aug

Stories of cultures, of cultural traditions that involve the imaginary, and the imaginary itself are shrouded in mysteries, but they should not be confused with ignorance or superstitions, this is what can be read in the book of the almost centenary Edgar Morin “Knowledge, Ignorance and Mystery ”. there is a lot about knowledge, something about ignorance and the essentials about mystery, Morin’s dosage is perfect and a good remedy for the pandemic.

He is preparing a book for the pandemic, but as he always anticipates the story I hope to read and I believe he is one of the few who can talk about the new name or the post-pandemic precisely because he emphasized in one of his conferences that the health crisis caught us by surprise and put us on our knees.

In addition to planetary books like “Terra Pátria”, about epistemology “The Method” in six volumes, it is one of the rare ones that ventured to tread new paths in our global dilemmas through “To Exit the 20th century” and “Before the Abyss” However, in this 2018 book, your leap is over the mystery without slipping through the easy paths of belief and ignorance, questions both the fetish of reason and materialistic determinism, among its various works are the Transdisciplinary Studies done in a Center of these studies in Paris with the philosopher, important for the digital world Michel Serres, recently deceased, and proclaims that with discipline and excessive specialization we can move towards a new “obscurantism”.

He clearly separates ignorance from mystery, for him “ We can only apprehend the real through representations and interpretations. The reality of the outside world is a humanized reality: we do not know it directly, but through our human spirit, translated / reconstructed not only by our perceptions, but also by our language, our theories or philosophies, our cultures and societies ”, and for him, the mystery is equated by transdisciplinarity as “the contradiction to which all in-depth knowledge arrives is not an error, but the last conceivable truth”.

He values ​​mystery as a path of discovery and knowledge: “Complex knowledge is the necessary path to reach the unknowable. Otherwise, we remain ignorant of our ignorance. The mystery in no way detracts from the knowledge that leads to it. ”

He calls our current environment as having a “culture of cancellation”, a more resentful half-sole in the old ideological patrols, and they now seem to intensify with the return of ideological polarization, which in the post-war created a constant tension in all of humanity. Which reminds you when children cover their ears and emit mimetic chants (he calls gutturals) so as not to hear interlocutors who contradict them (if you never know that you may be wrong, you will be right forever), so the polarization and radicalization seems to come from nursery education. It is not only the natural environment that needs biodiversity, the cultural environment and democracy also needs it, as Morin says, in fact “they depend on biodiversity”, we are willing to live with what is different or we want to eliminate it, the answer given in global scale is frightening, it is no mystery to ignorance and contempt for the Other.

Morin, Edgar (2020). Conhecimento, Ignorância, Mistério (Knowledge, Ignorance, Mystery). 1st. edition. BR: Bertrand do Brasil.




A vaccine is difficult this year

24 Aug

There are three phases for a vaccine to be released, in Brazil the body responsible for evaluating and approving requests for conducting clinical research for the purpose of registration and requests for registration of immunobiological products developed in the pharmaceutical industry is made by Anvisa (Agência Nacional de Health Surveillance), there are ethics committees that monitor the stages of the studies, the Research Ethics Committees (CEPs) and / or the National Research Ethics Commission (CONEP), so there are criteria and care.

In phase 1, small groups of volunteers are selected, normally healthy adults, are evaluated to verify the safety and determine the type of immune response caused by the vaccine, in phase 2, a greater number of individuals are included and the product is administered to individuals representative of the population with lower immunological protections (children, adolescents, the elderly and people with compromised immunology), already in the third phase it is necessary to apply to a large number of individuals and ensure the minimum possible adverse reactions and contraindications, in this stage the number of volunteers must be large.

The company will only request the registration of products with studies in phase 3 in progress, so the data from steps 1 and 2 must be consolidated and their efficiency demonstrated with high therapeutic and / or preventive efficiency, and there is no alternative therapy comparable to that stage of disease, here comes the play of economic interests that can be taken to the political field and even to dispute markets, however it is to be expected that in the case of Covid-19 there is some ethics in this process.

There are 26 vaccines in an advanced stage, but the four vaccines with potential use in Brazil are based on four different techniques: the viral vector is the technique of Oxford and AstraZeneca, which has the collaboration of FioCruz Brazilian Lab, the one from the Chinese laboratory Sinovac has participation from the Butantan Institute USP-Brazilian, BioNTech – Wytech / Pfizer has private laboratories in Brazil and announced that it could be ready in October, and Janssen Pharmaceuticals (Johnson & Johnson) adopts the adenovirus vector technique (see techniques and collaborations in the figure).

Sinovac with the virus inactivated technique may be ready for next year, Janssen has not made big announcements yet, but it is known that it will go to the third phase, and the most promising one is that of Oxford is in phase 3, but it should not be available until at best in December.

According to Anvisa, the deadline for the manifestation on the vaccine is up to 60 days, although Anvisa has accelerated the ordering process for medicines and vaccines in the case of Covid-19, it instituted a Committee for the Evaluation of Clinical Studies, Registration and Post-registration of Medicines, which includes vaccines.

Thus, even if the request is sent in October, the probable approval is for December, until production begins and the health agencies must make it available, they should be ready to start the vaccination in mid-January, before this care, prevention and maintaining hopes.

Meanwhile, in Brazil, we are paralyzed at a level of a thousand daily deaths.


Who is The truth for you?

21 Aug

What is certain is that the truth is who and not what because what will only be an object and this truth could only be established by a dual relationship: from the subject to the object which he interprets, that is why we fall into relativism or into pure doxa, opinion, truth can only be established in the relationship with the Other, in Socratic philosophy, the truth is not with men, but is among them, in their relationality.

However, the establishment of this truth requires ontological unveiling, it is not simple because although it is intrinsic to being, what occurs from idealism is a great veiling of being, only from Heidegger will this unveiling be thought of, but we still remain at night of thought and culture.

Being in relation to objects, which is also intrinsic to being, it is a material substance, the Greek hylé, from which hilemorfismo (theory that adds hylé and morphé) arose according to which all corporeal beings are composed of matter and form , which from scholasticism is thought of as a substance.

The consequences of this ontological truth have an impact on philosophical anthropology, which studies how man can understand himself, so a metaphysical sense is recovered and man can also be discussed in an eschatological sense, from where he comes and where he will go, or teleological as conventional literature prefers.

Philosophers like Bernar Groethuysen affirmed that “the reflection on ourselves, always renewed reflection that the man does to come to understand himself”, already Landsberg will say otherwise: “conceptual explanation of the idea of ​​the man from the conception that he has of yourself at a certain stage in your existence ”, but the question is up to you and everyone who or what (for the question not being directional) is the truth?

If the question is hilemorphic, man came from the dust and the dust will return, but there is an aortic response, especially for our day, its shape or structure may change and so there will be a change, what Fritjof Capra called the reinvention of man, and that I think as a Christian, a change in his soul.

After a long life with the disciples is the question that Jesus is also going to ask his disciples (Mt, 16: 13-14): “Who say that men are the Son of Man?” They answered: “some say that it is John the Baptist; others that is Elijah, still others that is Jeremiah or one of the prophets ”, but who today is for us, not for non-believers, even for Christians, he still seems to be an enigmatic, miraculous, historical, political character or was it even God.

The truth may seem too simple, not have a deep intricate logic, not be linked to any form of power or temporal politics, but what if He is the truth? how much would change in the life of the planet, how would our view of the pandemic, the distribution of goods and solidarity change?

To those who do not believe and if it is really true, it could be a great answer in times of pandemic and social difficulties, but his question is there.




Truth is ontological, is it logical or is it power

20 Aug

The sophists said that man is the measure of things (Protagoras), not to affirm any ontological principle, only to reaffirm the current status quo that ultimately is power, they used the art of persuasion (Gorgias) for this and lastly they affirmed the convenience of the strongest (Trasímaco), almost all appear in the dialogues of Plato, through the dialogues of Socrates) and whose concern was to contest them to affirm the democracy of the polis.

Then we lived for several centuries organizing the laws until the transition from the Greek city-state to the post-middle age towns, where liberalism will grow until it becomes the modern state, creating the concept of nation and the social contract that governs a specific people .

For the modern epistemological view, truth is linked to the object (the thing itself) and this makes it relative, since it is subject to space, time and categories, this concept comes from Aristotle, but it was on him that the thought of middle ages were divided between nominalists and realists, but for both and also for Descartes who will establish the res-extensive (matter), the res-cogitans (thinking thing) and the divine res (perfect, infinite thinking thing).

It is Kant who makes the connection of the thinking thing about the object becoming relative, since such truth is to the knowing subject having then a subjective face, proper to the subject, for him the “thing in itself” (the object) becomes “The thing in me” (subject to subjectivity).

This means that before the object, the conscience develops the work in the production of the truth according to the space in which that object is occupying, the time that it is situated and in which category it fits, then it is a matter of categorizing and organizing the objects around concepts.

It is not difficult to understand that this creates a logical structure that will initially create a positivist logic and later a logical empiricism, or a neologicism, in both currents any metaphysical aspect is denied, so logic is no longer a function of an argumentative construction , but from a calculation of propositions that follows a logical structure, ultimately it is also what justifies power and its machinations.

We return to the sophist narratives, the idea that it is the power that says what is true, so it is a matter of conquering it many times in a logic in which the ends justify the means, thus corruption is justified, the absence of virtues morals and even death.

The ontological truth seemed to have succumbed, but it was hermeneutics and phenomenology that brought modern ontology back to its roots, Franz Brentano will use a subcategory of the ontological concept of consciousness, by elevating intentionality to a higher category and making it a “mental phenomenon” .

Husserl, a student of Brentano, will recreate the intentionality and remove it from the psychological aspect still with an empiric remnant, and will say that it only makes sense to call consciousness, the “awareness of something”, this means that there is no awareness of the thing-in- itself, but the intentionality in the awareness of something.

Intentionality distinguishes property from mental phenomenon: being necessarily directed towards an object, whether real or imaginary. It is in this sense, and in Husserl’s phenomenology, that this term is used in contemporary philosophy, also by Heidegger, but which will recover and transform the idea of ​​Being.

However, it is necessary to remember that Heidegger in My Way in Phenomenology, was due to the reading in 1907 of Brentano’s dissertation written in 1862: “The multiple meaning of being in Aristotle” (Brentano, 1862) and this meant a resumption of the path of his master Edmund Husserl.

Heidegger, unlike Brentano, denies the fundamental characterization of being as a substance, since, Brentano was still linked to the medieval interpretive tradition, disregarding the dimension of the role in language, for this reason he will properly say that his Dasein is a “new question” .

The true-being (the ontological truth) as being-discoverer [Wahrsein (Wahrheit) besagt entdeckend-sein] is the way in which aletheia appears, it is what Heidegger calls unveiling, taking it literally (but translated that is already an interpretation):

“The statement is true means: it discovers the being in itself. He enunciates, indicates, “lets see” (apophansis) the being in his being and being discovered. The true-being (truth) of the statement must be understood in the sense of being-discoverer. ” (HEIDEGGER, 2009, p. 289)

HEIDEGGER, M. (2009) Ser e Tempo (Being and Time). 4ª ed. Trad. Marcia Sá Cavalcante Schuback. (Brazilian edition) Petrópolis: São Paulo.




Ame Agaru and pandemic

19 Aug

The film by an assistant to Akira Kurosawa, Tadashi Koizumi, has this name “After the rain” (Ame Agaru, 1999) was a script by Kurosawa that Tadashi inherited, the first point that can be highlighted in this film is the relationship between man / nature that limits human action and they are stuck in the middle of a path waiting for the rain to pass, like many others also have a samurai.

But he will have to perform a task that is not very worthy of a samurai, to get money for people who stay there can eat, this is my analogy with the pandemic, from the time when everyone is trapped in the house, an analogy I make with social isolation.

The protagonist of the film is a character of the type “jidai-geki” (the films that are inspired by the history of Japan), it could also be a film about the “autumn of a samurai”, there is another script film made by Kurosawa’s heirs called “Rhapsody in August” (1991), in this the director was Kiyoko Mura.

This worldview of not conceiving man apart from nature, in times when ecology was still a marginal topic, now with the rediscovery of nature we have an interesting analogy to be made, nature limited us behind a virus, and yesterday we saw temperature spikes low in the south of the American continent, temperatures have been 20ºC below zero in Rio Grande (Tierra del Fuego), according to data from the National Meteorological Service (SMN) of Argentina.

In the USA where it is summer, the high temperature record was in the “death valley”, 54.4ºC a record very close to the highest temperature ever recorded in the region, which was 56.9ºC in 1913, according to the National Meteorological Service ( American NWS), nature shows its signs of reaction to the pandemic ecological action of centuries.

Returning the rain in the middle of a forest where poor people pass, at a certain moment the samurai finds himself in the condition of helping those people due to the long period they are isolated, and when he leaves he is faced with a murderer that the samurai will prevent a a duel that could end in death, and for this reason the feudal lord who owns those lands decides to employ him as a swordsman, there remains a qualm that is to accept money, which is dishonorable for the samurai.

The Samurai decides to do it for a noble purpose, which is to have food for those people who are retired there, almost all of them poor because they were making that way through the forest, when they were prevented from proceeding by the rain.

If the message at that time was little appreciated, today with the economic situation that we will have after the pandemic, the message is noble and social.

Below a link to see the film:



The pandemic and the doxa

18 Aug

Mere opinion on topics as complex as the treatment of the pandemic exposed the world to mere opinion or “doxa” as the Greeks called what was opposed to episteme or organized and systematized knowledge.

The number of curious solutions in the fight against the virus is enormous: using lemon to ozone, the remedies that are effective for other diseases such as the use of chloroquine for malaria, uses of teas and hot water, certain fruits and vegetables, FioCruz that accompanies the Oxford vaccine development carried out a survey, which gives 73% of the news about coronavirus cures as false, mostly home recipes with no effect on the disease.

All life in Plato’s time (428/427 BC – 348/347 BC) happened around the polis, where there was already the citizen of the polis, the politician, but still dominated the sophists, who sought only arguments to favor power , without worrying about justice and truth.

In the book Plato’s Republic the term episteme, which previously supported the possibility of being a skill for something, now acquires the content of knowledge full of certainty, an evident knowledge that is linked to the reality of Eidos (the Idea for the ancients), with this episteme is true knowledge and totally opposed to doxa, reduced to simple opinion.

It is in the relationship between epistemology and ethics, that it is possible to consider the action from a doxa point of view, although it does not mean a basis for this type of ethical knowledge in Plato, as he will appear with Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC), in particular in his book “Ética a Nicômaco”.

The problem of determining these concepts by linking them to ethical issues appears in the first dialogues until the Republic, which remains afterwards in the dialogues about the Laws, making it possible to address this issue in later dialogues.

Plato uses the concepts of nous (Republic VI 511d4) and noesis (Republic VI 511e1), the doxa is in the world of sensitive reality, while the episteme is in dianoetic knowledge (dianoia, it is the way of thinking lower than noesis) that its object is the noeta, but they are inferior to the dialectic (República VII 533d).

Aristotle will deny the existence of eide (pure thought) in Platonic terms, so his episteme will designate for him the knowledge of the necessary causes (it is developed in the first analytics) and consists of demonstration (apodeixis) and sensation (aisthesis) becomes if necessary for the episteme.

In order not to complicate too much, the Greeks are, it is in Metaphysics (E 1, 1025b-1026a.) That the term episteme will designate a systematic organization of rational knowledge, thus coming to point to theoretical knowledge, in opposition to practical knowledge and poietic (Nicomachean Ethics VI 3, 1139b14-36).

Whatever the form of systematic knowledge, science has its ways and to deny them is to put all of humanity to the test, neither home recipes nor vaccines without the conditions for testing are acceptable, caution is necessary, we have already paid a price too much for deaths in the pandemic, the cure is to eliminate the possibilities of reinfection and side effects, it is the dose of the poison that makes the medicine, but the reverse is also true.