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Arquivo para January, 2021

The desired and not built peace

19 Jan

We know that the “pax romana” was the surrender to the empire that dominated the good face of the civilized world at the time, it is true today that there were already people in various parts of the planet, but their paleontological records do not leave many marks of their cultures, and perhaps as Rousseau thought ‘the good savage’ lived in peace, but in the natural conflict with nature.
The “eternal peace” elaborated by the idealists and idolized by the worshipers of the “modern state” is not deepened, because in fact for many this will be the state, excuse the final irony of humanity and should only be perfected. Kant published in 1798, in a Berlin magazine, the essay “Announcement of the forthcoming signing of a treaty for perpetual peace in philosophy”, which was a resumption of his essay two years earlier: “For perpetual peace”, that was confined in its philosophy.
This is because the goal was to resolve peace within a single state, or in terms of relations between different states, which we can see even with the emergence of the UN and the rise of democratic nations, which in essence the idea of state remains enlightened. .
From this essay it can be assumed that what the philosopher understood by philosophy means that if systems of philosophy found a solution to their conflicts they could help political systems to resolve their conflicts, so it remains in the idealistic field.
The conflict between object and subject, which supposes that it is in the object that is the conflict and not in the subject is the hypothesis of the idealism/enlightenment system, but it is in the facticity of the historical subjects that the conflicts are, I do not understand as the historicity romantic because facticity is the Heideggerian concept of the subject thrown into the world with his facts.
Thus, what is meant by peace beyond idealism is that which can be built on the facticity of everyday life, in every conflict encountered in every fact, without being confined to theoretical or philosophical assumptions, but where the “being thrown” is. in the world”.
Peace, therefore, is built and not an agreement between states or within them, the peace treaty of the 1st. world war led to the second, some readers of world history say, the fact is that there were two wars and the “modern” states not only did not avoid, but are authors. “If you want peace, build peace,” said an Italian politician, very few understanding this.

A post-pandemic will be problematic, it may even lead to a civilizational crisis, where many measures should be taken from now on.

 

Financial pandemic covid

18 Jan

The current crisis, which is a health pandemic may haveserious financial consequences, the warning is from World Bank chief economist Carmen Reinhart.

The prolongation of the Covid-19 Pandemic overloads domestic and business economies and evolves into an economic crisis. Reinhart calls this effect “cumulative cost”, explains that there are classic balance sheet problems.

In 2009 he published a book with Kenneth Rogoff, then a Harvard colleague, who analyzed the most recent financial crisis, the book “This time was different: eight centuries of Financial Folly “has become a benchmark for governments for recessions, bank runs and infringement proceedings.

Those who believed in a full return to normality are mistaken, as well as a plan for future pandemics and a co-immunity (concept created by Sloterdijk before of Pandemic), it is necessary to develop a kind of mutualism, that is, relationships that have mutual commitments, where the Other is not uncomfortable but part of the solution.

It must be imagined that this could promote a great change of mentality, this seems almost impossible , but the future of humanity depends on this, and learning must be fast, is one of Sloterdijk’s subjects in “Change Your Life”, written before the pandemic.

 

The originality of Being in Heidegger

15 Jan

The great question of Being in contemporary philosophy emerged from the thought of Martin Heidegger, a student of Husserl from which he inherited phenomenology as a method, essentially proposed to penetrate the question of being.
Although it has been studied by philosophy at all times, even Kantian idealism has an ontology that is displaced from Being to the subject, it already existed in Plato as an idea (Platonic eidos is not Kantian) and Aristotle as substance.
The being does not manifest directly, but always with the being of the being, you can play a joke with the contemporaneity that is the sick Being, because the Being of the Being is hidden in appearance.
One can seek pure Being in an ethereal existence of a God, but it is the existential door through man that one has access to Being, in this case Heidegger is applying the phenomenological method, he departs from man in fact (not idealized by example), let it manifest itself as it is and only then try to understand it in its manifestation after the presence.
Its first existence is being-in-the-world, one of the most widely accepted translations for Dasein, but as this being is also a Being-in-Situation, Heidegger’s careful reading can clarify this, I make a translation of being-being itself. – in the world, because Heidegger also uses the worldview (Weltanstchauung), which is open to the world and the cosmos, including the worldview.
This concept is important for Heidegger’s understanding of Being because it means this worldview as the circle of beliefs, affects, interests, and even philosophical concepts that Being has, even if it does not study philosophy, Being is “being-in-a-situation” that It does not mean just place or even context, but the very vision one sees in seeing the world, its “worldview”.
So many ideas and beliefs seem obvious to a person, but practically all of them are tied to temporal situations and thus limited by the “situation” in avise, that does not exclude thinking e the life.

This “abode” as an asceticism is described in the passage where the disciples ask the Rabbi (teacher), where He lives (Jn 1,38-39) and he said “Come and see”, they went and stayed with Him that day, where is your address?
 

For a spiritual ascesis

14 Jan

What we see beyond the crisis and cultural night, beyond a deep social crisis without a thought that catalyses the real forces of society that point to the future, is also a night of God, educator Martin Buber describes it as God’s Eclipse.
Buber wrote in his book: “I later built for myself the meaning of the word ‘mismatch’, through which was roughly described the failure of a true encounter between human beings. When, after another 20 years, I saw my mother, who had come to visit me, my wife, and my children from afar, I couldn’t look into her still astonishingly beautiful eyes without hearing the word “mismatch” somewhere as if it were. tell me.
I suppose that everything I have experienced over the course of my life about the authentic encounter has its first origin at that time in the gallery. ”(BUBER, 1991, p. 8). Thus revealing the true face of the “silence of God” of Judaism in which it has its roots, will be in another book the “I-Thou” where he will reveal an aspect of his asceticism which is “the encounter with the Other”, which for Buber more. than one person, your Tu has a divine essence, God inhabits the other.
These days there are two strong tendencies, and in both asceses there is in fact no spirituality beyond transcendence, or the activism that Byung Chul condemns as the “active vita” that leads to tiredness, or the idealistic subjectivism that can It seems to be religion but it is not, what it arouses is nothing but sentimentality, and can lead to “faithful” tears, not necessarily to God, if they do discover Him they must seek another true asceticism.
Thus it is possible that they will find God in one way or another, but there is no other way to remain in the faith, not of the blind but of those who have found a clearing, if indeed meditation and prayer are to remain, they are indispensable.
For those who have no faith, a good reading, separating passages and thoughts, living the moment as we wrote in the previous post, is fundamental, that is, also for reading can follow the rule of doing it without “gluttony”, try put the soul in silence, making a true “epoché”.
To those who believe always reflect that Jesus prayed, and asked his disciples to pray with him, and not to lose this practice, Jesus will tell the parable of the bad judge who does not want to attend the widow, but by his insistence and so that she does not. he curses, he answers, says the opening passage: “Jesus told the disciples a parable to show them the need to pray always, and never give up…”, which is in Luke 18: 1.
BUBER, Martin. (1995) Eclipse de Dios. México: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1995.

 

Desert, existence and dreaming

13 Jan

Existence already (pointed in others posts) depends on living the instant that passes, time of change imply to know and know that there are moments of desert in which existence itself seems in check at this moment must not stop dreaming, a future to come.
What we seek or what we find in the desert is the understanding of what we have developed this week in anguish, not the one that leads to frustration, but just without opposite, in the developed concept we aim not to live on borrowed meanings, to look at it as an opportunity.
The second feeling of desert is that which philosopher Kierkegaard has pointed to as repetition, the feeling that everything has stopped and there is nothing but the desert, existence has stopped and it may even seem that it has ended, there is another repetition that aims in the essentials. that is boy to go beyond.
She deals with frustration and keeps us dreaming, but we affirm it is not the pleasures, the fortune (here in the financial sense) and not even letting it happen and leaving the world as it is that dreams are found even in a desert.
Precisely because it is changing times, values and feelings are boiling, that we can find new dreams, achievable of course, but sometimes even crazy can be achievable.
What separates one from the other is not the depth of a dream, but the perpetuity of what one seeks, if we seek only the pleasures, the power or the preponderance over the Other, they are not dreams, they are at the very least evasive of true dreams, not they are generous to all mankind.
But what is most sought after is these transient dreams, and frustration follows them almost inevitably, of course some will get rich, will have ecstasies of value, but at a high cost.
It is like the biblical passage, when receiving the disciples of John the Baptist who lived in the desert, said the multitudes who followed him (Mt 11: 7-9): “What were you to see in the desert? A reed shaken with the wind? What did you see? A man dressed in fine clothes? But those who wear fine clothes are in the palaces of kings. 9So what were you to see? A prophet? ”, a prophecy is also a dream.

It takes philosophical anguish to dream, to enter a virtuous circle of a dream come true.

 

Anguish, existence and vanity

12 Jan

As we have already discussed, the anguish of our time is the tension with Being, maintaining “authenticity with oneself”, not being carried away by the current of expectations and impositions of temporal powers, and thus dealing with the frustrations of holding firm perennial values ​​and dealing with oneself. with the transients.

From this stems the search for an existence where there is Fortune (our happiness), but the Greeks who used reference to the goddess Fortuna (picture), knew well that it was not related to the possession of goods, as stated Heraclitus of Ephesus: “if the If happiness were in the pleasures of the body, we would say happy oxen when they find peas to eat”, some prefer peas.

When we do not live the repetition as expounded by Professor Giacóia in the sense of seeking the essence, we enter the repetition of sameness that lives from fear, which leads us to live in impropriety, we do not attribute meaning (or meaning some prefer), we let others and circumstances attribute it, we live the worst alienation, the alienation of ourselves, running everywhere with full and empty agendas at the same time, frivolities said Sloterdik.

We live for a purpose that has no end, in the sense of goal, but “borrowed” meanings of daily life, conjunctures and contexts. Anguish produces the opposite effect. It opens up the possibility of finding what I am within a proper sense of life.

It is the reunion with the Self, open to the world and the Other, without implying either individual closure or depersonalization of the environment, today with the strong pressure of psychopower, as thinker Byung Chul Han defines the essential pressure of this time.

What we seek, what is our goal, should ultimately be seen as end, never as temporal: money, power, wealth or simply some vanity.

 

Science, conscience and complexity

11 Jan

Modern science, especially from the seventeenth century onwards, built a new world that renounced metaphysics, theory, and was methodologically rooted in the mathematical project of nature mastery and the experiments and measurements for this domain project.
But has dominated nature reacted and reacted in unthought ways, extreme climates whether from European summers or American colds, rains and burns, where even the oceans already show signs of depletion, dominate or destroy nature? and there are reactions from nature itself, such as the pandemic and natural disasters.

The very limits of science as logic and power are in check, will we rule our lives solely by markets and their values, do cold numbers say anything about man?
In addition to the physical and scientific paradigms about new technologies, there are emerging social problems that worry even those who have always taken advantage of markets, economist Federico Cingano in an OECD study said: “When income inequality increases, economic growth falls,” thus it is inevitable to approach the subject from any perspective.
Beyond the problem of consciousness, philosophically or technically, there is a social dimension that is correlated, not indifferent, this also holds for consciousness in the historical question.
Edgar Morin warns of the teaching system, where it is still hermetically taught: “We do not teach the understanding of the other, which is fundamental in our day, we do not teach uncertainty, what is the human being, as if our human identity does not it was of no interest.
The most important things to know are not taught, ”he said in the Fronteiras do Pensamento (Thought Borders), a Brazilian cultural program.
He sees the crisis of democracy as the obscure relationship with the “enormous powers of money, which has led to corruption everywhere.
The emptiness of thought, coupled with this corruption, leads to a loss of confidence in democracy, and this has favored the neutral authoritarian regimes as we have seen in Turkey, Russia, Hungary and as we now see in the crisis of democracy in Peru and Brazil, ”the case Bolivia today is a separate case.
He also sees with concern the fundamentalist and ethnic closure: “Unless people become aware of the human destiny community on earth, people will close in on their religious, ethnic identities, and so on.
We live in a dark period of history, the only consolation is that these dark periods are not eternal ”we believe in the future. Edgar Morin’s full interview on Thought Frontiers follows below:

 

The eternal and the current fragility

08 Jan

There is no way to think of eternal without thinking of God, so religions that give up the divine figure need reincarnation, to human return, it is a time of crisis beyond the pandemic, a revolt by supporters of Trump exploded in the United States, the richest nation on the planet it’s bad.

During the week we worked on the capacity for dialogue and the search for coexistence between opposite poles, the time we live goes in the opposite direction, the result is the explosion of conflicts.

Outside the American situation, the global situation is no less problematic, new situations of lock-down by the pandemic, the emergence of economic crises and the enrichment of uranium in Iran point to the weakness of the world balance, we are just a little less fragile than fetuses.

What is expected, at least, from the voices that have balance and that seek to send world peace is that they are attentive to these dangers and intervene in the fragility of world convivialities.

Nobody with a conscience expects a worse situation, the year of the pandemic was strenuous, but resilience and the search for dialogue must be permanent in order to avoid disasters and even more difficult situations than those already imposed on us.

For those who believe, asking for divine action on such a complex situation, if man cannot act according to grace, divine reaction is inevitable, where sin abounded grace abounds, says a Christian maxim.

The biblical manifestation of God the Father, Jesus had been baptized and thus received contact with the Holy Spirit and from there came a Trinitarian manifestation (Jesus, the Holy Spirit and God) that made the voice of God an imperative, says the evangelist Marcos ( 1.11) “And a voice came from heaven: ‘You are my beloved Son, I put my good wishes in you'”, the time we live in is thus a time in which many extraordinary manifestations will show Divine love

 

 

Between the eternal and the temporal

07 Jan

There is no dualism between body and mind, as the idealists want, the mind exists in a body and interacts with it, there is what is temporal and what is eternal, if not in a strict sense at least in the broad sense, principles are needed to determine the values ​​and what guide humanity in critical times of society, and the spiritual helps.
Byung Chul Han, in a January lecture at the Barcelona CCB where he showed the tearing of our time between narcissism, self-consumerism and an absence of relationship with the other, which must revolutionize time, or the way we manage it.
He said of the other and in reference to the universities: “In any case, we live in a time of radical conformism: the university has clients and only creates workers, it does not form spiritually; the world is at the limit of its capacity; maybe that will short circuit it and we get that original animal back. ”
He stated at the Barcelona CCB: “The current acceleration diminishes the ability to remain: we need a proper time that the productive system does not allow us to have; we need some free time, which means standing still with nothing productive to do, but not to be confused with recovery time to keep working; time worked is time lost, not time for us. ”
Modern humanism criticized by his master Peter Sloterdijk who asserts this sense back to the original animal, of course, is not in the sense of wild animality, but the idea that he must regain his relationship with nature will not be saved and will even condemn planet. Sloterdijk clearly outlines these ideas in the video below.
What the natural man means and his relations with the eternal, now not only nature, but in a worldview of paradise and eternal life, means that we must look at remaining values.
When questioned by the Sadducees, who were a more aristocratic class in Judaism, about who a woman who would marry several brothers after their deaths, would tell them that believing in eternal life means that the people will no longer die, Jesus response the question would not make sense and also that God is “God of the living” (Luke 20:38).
Looking only at temporal values and conjunctural situations prevents us from seeing the future and the eternal.
Follows Peter Sloterdijk’s interview on the braziliam program Fronteiras do Pensamento *“Borders of Thought”).

 

Three books (or 4)to read in 2021

06 Jan

I always propose to read some books in the year that begins, differently this year I feel more stimulated by the romance-fiction that inspired the film “O midnight sky” the book that is being translated into Portuguese by Lily Brooks -Dalton, is a reinterpretation of a collapsed land that has already appeared in other fictions such as Interstellar (2014), Gravity (2014) and the epic Blade Runner 2049 (2017) and Ad Astra (2019).

The second book is “Praise the Earth” by Byung Chul Han, it explores its oriental character almost of love for plants, of care, praise and gratitude, it is a garden that was given to the author for this care, making known another face of a writer, the synthetic and realistic relationship with nature.

He explores the rhythms and relationships of aromas with nature, exploring the subtlety of plants and flowers, which is an invitation to contemplation.

The third book is by Peter Sloterdijk (I already ordered the book) You must change your life, whose edition in Portuguese is from the publisher Relógio d´Água.

Peter Sloterdijk developed a philosophy from the book Rules for the human park, deepened in Critique to Cynical Reason and in the 3 volumes of his spheres (I only read the first, the others do not have a Portuguese version), in which he fights a battle against a failed humanism.

In this work You must change your life (in Germany it was launched in 2009, in Portugal last year) the philosopher takes up the question in which he seeks an anthropology in a non-literary or enlightenment dimension of the context of life, in an interview with Fronteiras do Pensamento, in 2016, stated about his anthropotechnics (the central theme of this book), he defines the human being not as creativity, but as a repetition of creativity.

He said in the interview: “the French word répétition expresses repetition at the same time, putting on stage actions that we have already produced, and the exercise that prepares a performance, a performance. Think of a musical or artistic repetition, making and repeating are terms that in French – unlike what happens in German – converge.

And it is exactly on this convergence that the work of anthropotechnics is concentrated”.

A fourth option is possible, the book of logotherapy by Viktor Frankl The meaning of life, its is widely read in Brazil.