Arquivo para July 21st, 2021

Language beyond logic

21 Jul

In the entire history of philosophy and even science, there are three concepts that surpass in many aspects the concepts of logic, among them, the truth, the good and the justice are the most common, already in

Plato go beyond being logical principles, they embody cosmological principles and as such must resort to metaphysics, analogy and metaphor.

Thus, in Book VI of the Republic, the great metaphysical analogy falls on the idea of ​​good, homonymous to justice and truth: the sun is the son and progeny of good itself, and is still its visible analogue, there it is placed in the shadows of shapes in the cave, the contrast with the real and perfect world of shapes and the analogy of the sun to “lighten” objects.

In the absence of knowledge, they confuse mere shadows with reality, and philosophy is for Plato the pedagogical bridge that serves to pass from complete obscurity to the light of knowledge.

The use of language can also be only logical, in the 1930s, Wittgenstein said that as we know that in language there are only propositions, and surprises only occur in the world, so there are no surprises in mathematics: mathematics is totally “grammatical”, right -se-ia today is just syntactic.

In the context of semantics, and of meaning, language acquires other properties and in them that the metaphor makes sense, when saying José is brave as a lion, the analogy serves to increase what it means brave, giving new semantics to the syntax: José is very angry.

But the metaphor is also contextual, the beautiful poem by Fernando Pessoa “The poet is a pretender” is only understood if we know that “rope train” refers to a child’s play in the 20s and 30s of the last century and that “wheel rails” refer to the tracks, there:

And so on the wheel rails

It turns, to entertain the reason,

that rope train

Which is called the heart.

There is also the penetration of the metaphor into the mystery, the ineffable as we have already posted, and being able to affirm it.