Arquivo para December 16th, 2021

Black holes and discoveries

16 Dec

Black holes don’t “suck” all the matter around them, and the latest observations prove that several bodies escape their very strong gravitational field, a region where a singularity point occurs, a name given in physics and mathematics for points of curves and events Physicists that some trend changes, for example, it is speculated that artificial intelligence may surpass human intelligence, which would bring about an irreversible change in human civilization.

Black holes, according to English physicist Stephen Hawking (from the Big Bang and the Theory of Everything), emit thermal radiation due to quantum effects and a special type of radiation that became known as Hawking radiation, as we have already pointed out in the blog, are the final stage of supermassive stars.

An observation made in 2013 proved this theory, and it was published by researchers at Cornell University (we did a post), but the observation of a black hole was only possible in 2019, thanks to an internationally collaborative experiment known as the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT ), which captured the first image of a black hole in the Messier 87 galaxy, photographed in the heart of the Centaurus A galaxy in unprecedented detail (pictured).

In a black hole, space and time fold in on themselves, the laws (which we know) of physics that apply to most of our universe don’t seem to work there, its edge as we’ve said is called the event horizon, and a Spinning black holes can reach temperatures in excess of 20 million °C, the accretion disk in a quasar releases blinding radiation across the entire electromagnetic spectrum.

The accretion disk refers to an accumulation of material on the “surface” (one must remember that the notion of time and space here is different), and this works as if it were a very efficient engine, in the view of French astrophysicist Marta Volonteri , from the Paris Institute of Astrophysics, black holes “are the most efficient and efficient engines in the universe”.

The mystery is what exists beyond black holes, one of the two most acceptable hypotheses is the one developed, in 1935, by Einstein and physicist Nathan Rosen to theorize bridges that connect two different points in space-time, and in 1980, the physicist Kip Thorne hypothesized that physical objects could travel through, something like the fourth dimension “wormholes” (wormholes), but different because they are seen in certain positions (space-time) of space.

The other hypothesis is called the “black hole firewall”, it would be like a kind of fire barrier, where the event horizon would burn anything that comes into contact immediately, this hypothesis lacks both theoretical and observational proofs, they were recently observed objects that exit or escape black holes.

The last hypothesis, the least likely of all, is called a white hole, where each white hole would have been in contact with another in the past, and was formulated by Russian cosmologist Igor Novikok in 1964, it lacks observations and some plausible fact.