Arquivo para May 30th, 2023

Alienation and absolute spirit

30 May

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (Germany, 1770-1831) is considered the last of the modern philosophers and who writes in a systematic way, where the theory forms a body.

The understanding of what alienation is becomes absolute, both in Hegel and in the philosopher Marx, pure thought becomes sensitive thought, aiming at a material realization in the form of work, and if we alienate ourselves, we separate ourselves from the pure essence and open the way for a separation between ideal and real, which unite in what Hegel called Absolute Spirit.

It is in the power relationship that both find themselves winning and being defeated that they see it: “You are the power that is above this being; well, this being is the power that is over the Other; therefore, you have this Other underneath you: this is the syllogism [of domination]” (HEGEL, 1988, p. 130).

The idealistic dualism becomes diabetic, the idea of ​​master and slave does not value one of the self-consciousness more than that of the other, in chapter IV he speaks of two self-consciousness that are confronting each other, thus dialogue and the fusion of horizons is not possible, but opposition.

“Therefore, the relationship of the two self-consciousnesses is determined in such a way that they prove themselves and each other through a life-and-death struggle. They must fight this fight, because they need to elevate to the truth, in the Other and in themselves, their certainty of being-for-itself. Only by putting one’s life at risk, freedom [is conquered]…” (HEGEL, 1988, p. 128).

Hegel did not destroy or abandon religion, he just rewrote it in his own way: “Religion is the way in which humanity is aware of the truth and it is for everyone, whereas philosophy is not accessible to all people (HEGEL, 1988, p. 106).

He even states that religion is necessary, in which the content must become objective for the sensitive consciousness and then, through reflection, be understood in the form of the universal, that is, of thinking (HEGEL, 1995, p. 133).

Hegel, G. W. F. (1995)  Introdução às Lições sobre História da Filosofia. Porto: Porto Editora.

Hegel, G. W. F. (1992). Fenomenologia do Espírito. Trad. Paulo Meneses e Karl-Heinz Efken. Brazi, Petrópolis: Vozes.

Hegel, G. W. F. (1988) Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion: The Lectures of 1827, One-volume edition. Berkeley: University of California Press.