Idealism the age of reason

19 Jul

Empiricism was not created by David Hume, but John Locke, ImmanuelEmpirismIdealism Kant however is that inspired by Hume, who will say “dare to know”, seeking wisdom, in the vision of the Enlightenment away from the beliefs and superstitions, say Kant:
Enlightenment [Aufklärung] is the man out of his youth, of which he himself is guilty. The minority is the inability to make use of his understanding without direction from another individual. The man is the culprit himself this minority is the cause of it is not in lack of understanding, but in lack of resolution and courage to use it yourself without the guidance of another. Sapere aude! “(Kant, 1783)

The period between the late seventeenth century and the late eighteenth century, known as the Enlightenment, was characterized by criticism of any belief, by criticism of own instruments for obtaining knowledge, and consider knowledge as something which aims to make life better human beings, both in the individual field, as in society.

Kant tried to get a moral to the personal field, that although criticize in the Practical Reason Critique the dangers of exaggeratedly egoic society of his time, for him as a “mania I”, a “social pathology”, which turns the notion of respect on a misconception based on the inner feeling of each individual, establish to reconcile rationalism with empiricism, that “Act as if the maxim of thy action were to be transformed, through your will, a universal law of nature.” in his Rationale the metaphysics of morals.


Thus, its reason is an attempt to overcome the “pure” reason of Descartes, but remain still stuck to it, the Kantian reason is not the way to think of each one, is something necessary and universal, ie all are are governed by it.

One can say roughly that in idealist philosophy the basic principle is that I am I, in a proper sense of idealism, I is object for me (I), so that its basic dichotomy that is the opposition between subject and object remains as incident inside the self, since I own is the object to the subject (I).
Idealism in its complexity can make a rough division into three parts: (1749) ‘philosophical system that approaches the thought all existence’ (1828) ‘design aesthetic in which to seek the expression of the ideal over the real’ ( 1863) ‘attitude which consists of subordinating thought and conduct to an ideal’, which will find its climax in Hegel.


Kant, Immanuel. Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals. Trans. Lewis White Beck. Page numbers citing this work are Beck’s marginal numbers that refer to the page numbers of the standard edition of Königlich-Preußische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Berlin, 1902–38.


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