Anthropology and Ontology

19 Mar

This is a hidden relation in many texts of contemporary thought, we now turn to the history of this Being-in-the-world (we already use another translation as pre-sence), or we delve into the “hidden” side of Being.
Some readings by Paul Ricoeur are important to clarify this question, for example reading Time and Narrative, we find the passage: however, it recognizes an anthropological dimension of the ontological-existential categories of Being and Time. According to him, Heidegger’s analysis must “have a certain consistency in the plan of a philosophical anthropology to exercise the ontological opening function that is assigned to it.” (Ricoeur, 1994, p.97).
Of course, the essential aspect of Heidegger’s Work is the question of Being, for which he is forgotten by traditional metaphysics because ontology has become an ontology of substance, which sees everything as the primacy of “thing.”
But his work is not displaced or forgotten by the anthropological dimension, this consistency is constructed as Ricoeur explains, by his existential analytic “it is before all psychology, anthropology and, above all, biology.” (Heidegger 1995, 81).
But it is not an opening of an a priori to the idealistic mode, it is not a simple “aprioristic construction” (Heidegger, 1995, p.87), that is to say, detached from any “empiria” or practical aspect, that the unrelated their objectivity.
Thus, with a correct method, all scientific research and ontological research may even converge, the latter always tending towards a greater “purification” and transparency of what was discovered ontologically, doing what Husserl called “returning the thing itself” is to abandon speculation and enter into the aspect of the relationship with knowledge, which is to give the world intelligible character.
Research that follows a “fixation of the sectors of objects,” and does so only from the original opening to the beings’ way of being by which the sensory experience of the world is responsible, but no responsible research will fail to present questions that are “subjective “Of the empirical data, hence inseparable from them.
If scientific inquiry approaches a particular region of entities, it enters a region beyond the horizon of the original experience: the horizon of the fundamental relation of the entity investigated and the world questioned of its relation.

In the anthropological plane this is essential, to collect data of a culture, without penetrating the “being” of it is to make an objective abstraction, to ignore subjective aspects of it.

Heidegger, M. Being and Time (part I). Petrópolis: Vozes, 1995. (brazilian edition)
Ricoeur, P. Time and Narrative (volume I). São Paulo: Papirus, 1994. (brazilian edition)


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