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The teleology of Kant

11 Jun

Since Kant clearly has principles and reasonings different from religious, at least as far as Christianity is concerned, one can then analyze whether his teleology is consistent, in terms of what he calls the “moral law” and the “limits of reason. ”
Moral law is indissociable from the religious idea, it can even be said that this would be its argument in defense of the existence of God, and is in the first part of his writing: “Religion on the Limits of Simple Reason” (2008), but it is also in the beginning of the Critique of Practical Reason, for him a “fact” of reason.
The book on religion came in the years 1793 and 1794, ie Kant (1724-1804) was in his maturity of the 70 years, and thus was at the same time his intellectual maturity and his anguish before the religion, Nietszche even says in his “Death of God” and affirms that he even wanted to erect a new religion, or a new thought about it or a teleology.
Kant re-read the doctrine of original sin, somewhat outside of Enlightenment thinking and its own root and against its belief in the congenital abounding of the human being.
He interprets this “sin” as the radical evil in us, and according to his thought are the actions that impel us to deviate from the moral law, which by a “revolution in the mood” and a “transformation of the mode of thinking “(A VI, 47s) we can in freedom, overcome the basic inclination by recovering the moral law within us.
In the second part of the book he clarifies the struggle of the good principle with the bad in the heart of man (see that it is not the superior theological good), the conquest of virtue, the need to promote purity of intention and obedience to the moral law, where Christ is a kind of archetype for which we must tend as personification of the good (this theological yes).
But what he understands as “perfection” is “the suitability of the conduct of life with the sanctity of the law, it is not attainable at any time,” and from here one may better understand its maxim in the Metaphysics of the Customs: “Acts externally in such a manner that the free use of your agency may coexist with the freedom of all according to a universal law.”
In the third part, if the foundation of a kingdom of God on earth is rediscovered, the theme of community or society and ethics, which is erected by the simple laws of the virtues as a regulating principle of action, is man constitutes the genuine end of all rational religion, “built on teleological principles though with references to Christianity.
The fourth part is a critique of religion, this can best be understood in connection with an “anthropological reduction” that he wrote at the end of his life: “Anthropology from the pragmatic point of view” (1798), lived another 6 years but with little intellectual production.

KANT, I. A religião nos limites da simples razão. Tradução: Arthur Mourão. Lisboa: Edições 70, [1793] 2008.

 

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