Clearing: method and contestation

08 Mar

It is through phenomenology that it is possible to resume the positivity of the being in relation to the only possible transcendentality, where the thing opens up in the dimension of the transcendental, the one that we developed in last week’s post and which in a certain way is opposed to Kant’s transcendent, which goes towards the knowledge of the object and for this reason it is confused with subjectivity.

In phenomenology, there is an intentional consciousness in its “a priori”, taken in a similar way to the subjective (proper of the subject), however, consciousness as a phenomenon reveals what is hidden, what the Greeks called “alétheia”, but at that moment science and all awareness of it was early.

In the phenomenal experience of the clearing (lichtung) there is the truth of the being that gives itself with a kind of “arch-phenomenon” (Ereignis), this is the very thing of phenomenology, where its intentionality is, but this also remains hidden.

If we create a void in consciousness in a phenomenal way (the phenomenological epoche), we open ourselves to our truth, we can enter a clearing even before an external event clears us up, this is the reason why humanism in both Heidegger and Sloterdijk is tied to history.

It was Hans Georg Gadamer who developed “The Question of Historical Consciousness” in his contestation of the romantic historical truth which is a quasi-determinism defended by many variants of leftist thought (Marx did not defend it), however there is the question of “natural time” in opposition to “human time”, a self-awareness of consciousness itself.

The hermeneutic circle method is a way to break this conception of consciousness that is only “temporal”, but it comes up against what must be “beyond the human”, shrouded in mystery and vices of historical interpretation.

Rüsen (2011) says that there is a type of historical consciousness made through the “intellectual transformation of natural time into human time”, understanding natural time as contingent events and human time as human representations of life itself.

Few are able to see in their own representations distortions of the truth, interpretations and repressed feelings that do not “clear” the conscience, this seen in a civilizing panorama transforms authoritarian, inhuman and destructive concepts into obscurity of the conscience, not to use the Greek alethéia again.



Civilization and the Glade

07 Mar

The merit of Heidegger having written about the clearing in the midst of the period post world wars was that of returning to contemplate what was essentially obscured: The Being, not just the human being, since his Letters on Humanism was polemicized by Peter Sloterdijk (much later), but mainly for returning to the question of the Life of Being.

The Heideggerian reading says: “”Destiny appropriates itself as the clearing of being, which is, as clearing. It is the clearing that grants the proximity of being. without him being able to experience and assume this dwelling today” (in Cartas sobre o Humanismo, 1967).

This clearing is different from any idea about modernity, such as enlightenment or some mystical process of enlightenment, says Heidegger: “”… , nor with regard to the thing that is expressed with the adjective luminous’, which means ‘clear'”, in another of his writings on the task of thinking.

The idea of ​​“Being”, the fact that we are and that death and war hide is once again important in the midst of war threats (see our previous post), thinking and the desire for political and social transformation cannot be allowed to submerge. this true purpose, which is the life of the Self.

This open free means that we can, faced with a situation of denial of Being, have a vision of what is ex-sistent, not as enlightenment, but as a real vision of what is in our presence, in Greek philosophy our “on”.

It is not a question of revelation, but of “unveiling”, that is, something that is always present in us, but hidden and almost dormant, returning to Parmenides’ reading of Being, Heidegger wrote: “As long as being prevails, from the aletheia, the self-revealing emergence belongs to him. (a-lethe).

Growing barbarism is not only the result of emerging social issues or territorial political disputes, but of the concealment of the Being.


HEIDEGGER, Martin.(1967) Carta sobre o humanismo (Letters on Humanism). Brazil, Rio de Janeiro: Tempo Brasileiro,  p. 61.


War and the End of Winter

06 Mar

The Russian strategy was to “freeze” the Ukrainians and their allies in Europe in the winter, so not only did it limit the shipment of gas but it also bombed several energy sources in Ukraine, with Europe stocking gas before and knowing the Russian strategy, it went to get natural gas in other sources, such as Africa, and now we are at the end of winter there (and summer here in the southern hemisphere).

A possible war tactic now would be the use of biological weapons, there are already reports that this has occurred in Ukraine, they are prohibited by international agreements, but a direct confrontation with NATO would bring enormous wear and tear beyond the possibility of a nuclear catastrophe.

Brazil’s vote and intervention for peace had a negative reaction in Russia, which has already alerted Brazil to a confrontational position, Brazil was the only country to vote against Russian intervention in the last vote that increased the rejection of Russian intervention, there is no other name for the fact.

The end of winter brings a period of great flooding and shifting terrain and the advance of ground forces is not possible, the young people recruited for the war in Russia do not have skills for heavy weapons and aviation for the most part.

What is the path to peace at the moment, Brazil is trying to form a “neutral” bloc that dialogues with both sides, but NATO is a fundamental part of the war in Ukraine and therein lies the difficulty.

The German newspaper Der Spiegel stated that the head of the European Commission, Ursula von der Leyen said that the time of peace is over in Europe, it is a serious statement, which came in response to Russian threats, also there is already a visible movement (I am aware of some cases) of services that can be done from home are moving outside Europe.

In the event of a biological war, of course we hope it never comes to this point, the evacuation of many services would be inevitable and a completely warlike climate would settle on the continent.

We hope and always believe in possible peace.



What’s beyond human

03 Mar

Certainly existing nature, the planets and the entire universe, when seen more by human devices: interplanetary travel and the James Webb megatelescope, more complex and challenging human intelligence.

But there is something in man in the human beyond that is in his conscience and in his feelings and affections, there is a complex divine spark, says the poet that makes him look outside for what is inside.

Imagining that this could be in a machine is just one of the aspects of control and the will to human power, whose theme we developed last week, the transhuman creates a fiction and a human fantasy that man himself would create something to overcome it, the great fantasy of the development of the resources of the current Artificial Intelligence, everything that is there the man who put it.

It is the human desire to be your own creator and who knows how to reach an earthly divinity, but contrary to what you seek, technology does not only have the purpose of destroying and also of helping, it can, by daydream, impel extra-human forces of destruction.

We were created because man has not always existed on earth, and even the hypothesis that we come from other celestial bodies, the fantasy of aliens, which may even exist, will be created by something that has an infinite consciousness and greater than ours, had to there is a celestial and ontological creative principle, with logic of being (onto).

This mystical fantasy makes sense, because any self-respecting science, philosophy, or theology will speculate about human creation, and any eschatology will wonder about our destiny.

There is a moment in Jesus’ earthly life, the historical figure is indisputable, in which he reveals himself as divine to his disciples, who are so amazed that they want to build three tents and stay there, the event called “Mount Tabor” (Photo), where they were with Jesus only three disciples.

(Mt 17,1-3): “Jesus took with him Peter, James and John, his brother, and led them to a place apart, on a high mountain. And he was transfigured before them; his face shone like the sun and his clothes became white as light. Then Moses and Elijah appeared to him, talking with Jesus.”



The electronic narrative

02 Mar

The rapid evolution of Artificial Intelligence, after a serious crisis towards the end of the millennium, brings a mystifying aspect to the scenario of scientific dissemination and sometimes even to scientific research itself, which sees it beyond the real possibilities or below what it is able.

That is why we pointed out in the previous post the real evolution and sophistication of Machine Learning algorithms and the growth of Deep Learning technology, this is the current rapid evolution, the evolution of electronic assistants (several of them are already on the market such as Siri and Alexa) is still limited and we commented in a post about the LaMBDA machine that it would have “sentient” capability.

Sentient is different from consciousness, because it is the ability of beings to perceive sensations and feelings through the senses, this would mean in the case of machines having something “subjective” (we have already spoken about the limitation of the term and its difference from the soul), although they are capable of of narratives.

This narrative, however complex it may be, is an electronic narrative, an algorithmic one, with the interaction of man and machine through “deep learning”, it is possible that it confuses and even surprises the human being with narratives and elaborations of speeches, however it will depend on always from the human narratives from which they are fed and create an electronic narrative.

I cite an example of the chatGPT that excites the mystifying discourse and creates an alarm in the technophobic discourse and creates speculations even about the transhuman limits of the machine.

A list of films considered extraordinary, exemplifies the limit of electronic storytelling, due to its human power, the list gave the following films: “Citizen Kane” (1941), “The Godfather” (1972), “Back to the Future ” (1985), “Casablanca” (1942), “2001: A Space Odyssey” (1968), “The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring” (2001), “The Shawshank Redemption” (1994), ” Psycho” (1960), “Star Wars: Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back” (1980) and “Pulp Fiction” (1994).

No mention of the Japanese Akira Kurosawa, the German Werner Herzog or the Italian Frederico Felini, just to name a few, about fiction would not leave out of the list Blade Runner – the hunter of androids, well connected to the technologies of “open AI” or the historic Metropolis (from 1927 by the Austrian Fritz Lang).

The electronic narrative has the limitation of what feeds it, which is the human narrative, even if it is made by the wisest human, it will have contextual and historical limitations.


The Machine Learning

01 Mar

Trend Even from the 21st century artificial intelligence was in a great crisis, could do a lot of logical reasoning, treat and rationalize equations, make inferences, but the volume of “human” data was small, the emergence of the Web and the adhesion of billions. of people enabled a new scenario: Big Data, a large amount of human data.

This large and complex data can be processed with large-scale accurate results, so that it can be processed by machine so that the machine “learns” trends, this (not by) machine learning is called “Machine Learning”.

With this it is possible to identify opportunities and avoid mistakes such as insisting on “logical” discourses but out of trend, it is not a question of going into fashion, but rather identifying it to correct it or propose other alternatives, and that is the opportunities Real.

Big data identifies data patterns, creates and analyzes the connections between them, and makes the execution of a given also smarter, whether or not it can rely on human supervision. In these two types, supervised and unsupervised, machine “learning” will always be essential, in supervised there is human interaction controlling the input and output of data and thus directly interfering with machine training, while in unsupervised algorithms use deep learning to handle and solve complex tasks without human intervention.

An important algorithm for semantic searches was made by a GitHut team: Hamel Husain. Ho-Hsiang Wu and Tiferet Gazit, and two Microsoft researchers: Miltiadis Allamanis and Marc Brockschmidt, who assess the state of evolution of semantic search algorithms and even make the code available through the GitHub site.


The question of consciousness

28 Feb

The big issue for artificial intelligence was until recently autonomy, robots, autonomous machines and now autonomous cars, with all the controversy the project evolves, Germany, for example, already provides a line of autonomous cars for the next decade that will begin.

The new issue is the question of consciousness, it has occupied the minds of philosophers for over a century, and can conceptualize in general terms the ability to take actions and consequences of these actions, which has to do with autonomy, because autonomy It is to analyze the consequences of acts performed by machines, the limits of dangerousness and privacy.

In the context of social or historical consciousness, this was Gadamer’s great debate with Dilthey, to which he attributed a conception of romantic consciousness for the absence of a “historical mediation” from facticity, and asks “how will the task of hermeneutics ”and finds a common ground between Schleiermacher and Hegel” (Gadamer, 2002, Truth and Method, p. 256), with the concepts of reconstruction and integration, and according to him, Dilthey makes the intermediate path between them.

Gadamer explains: “Schleiermacher and Hegel could present the two extreme possibilities of answering this question.

Their answers could be assigned to the concepts of reconstruction and integration. For both Schleiermacher and Hegel, in the beginning there is the awareness of a loss and alienation from tradition, which is what drives hermeneutic reflection” (idem).

However, he will say, each of them will determine the task of hermeneutics differently, and what Gadamer calls reconstruction and integration means the separation of preconceptions and alienation from tradition, and therefore rebuild and integrate.

Schleiermacher’s famous thesis is “What matters is to understand a better author than one would have understood himself,” Gadamer thought about the work of art, but Schleiermacher is stuck with his conception of “history of the spirit” which is his concept.

What Hegel says, according to Gadamer, is the creation of a category by stating that the essence of the historical spirit is not the restitution of the past, but the mediation of thought with the present life, which is the prevalence and idealism of the ideal over the factual questions.

And the origin of consciousness, as it happened, is that Terence Deacon is right in claiming that the mind came from matter, and with it came consciousness, if it is true, it is possible to think that somehow the machine, on the levels of intelligence artificial, you may have “consciousness” and then you will know that it is machine and that we humans are not.

What we relate in the videos of Gadamer and Peter Sloterdijk was to introduce this question, and the question of truth is proposed as the genesis of historical consciousness (Gadamer, 2002, p. 265), so machine consciousness cannot have this level.

GADAMER H. G.(2002) Verdade e Método (Truth and Method), 4th ed., Tr. Flavio P. Meurer. Petrópolis: Vozes (Brazilian edition).


A chance for peace

27 Feb

Contrary to what was imagined for a year of war, completed this weekend, the Russia-Ukraine confrontation may have a different outcome, there is finally a chance for peace.

Brazil made a new proposal for a motion at the UN, in addition to offering to mediate the negotiations, China also seems willing, even if on suspicion of possible military aid to Russia and all this changed the voting scenario for a new motion at the UN, more lenient, condemning the Russian invasion.

The motion approved with some inclusion of the Brazilian text, had a very significant vote, 141 votes voted in favor (more countries than the previous one), 32 abstentions, with China being significant, and seven against: North Korea, Nicaragua, Eritrea , Belarus, Syria, Mali and Russia itself.

Russia says it accepts possible mediation by Brazil, and China obviously would be fine, but already in this case there is distrust in the West, as the text proposed by China speaks of Russian “rest”, if China sends arms to Russia, even with NATO’s aid to Ukraine would be very fragile.

Proposals for amendments were made, Belarus, for example, wanted to remove the part of the text that blamed Russia for starting the conflict, but the Brazilian text, even though it was milder, made Russian aggression clear.

So now there is a greater possibility of a bloc for bilateral peace negotiations from an ideological point of view, and a greater awareness of the attrition and humanitarian damage of war.

Peace is finally starting to be thought of realistically and by both sides in conflict.



Power and interiority

24 Feb

Clarified in the previous post the difference between soul and spirit, the concept used by Hegel to develop the (metaphysical, for him “subjective”) idea of ​​power uses an analogy of digestion, which Byung Chul Han takes advantage of:

“Power is, for Hegel, already effective at the most elementary level of life. Digestion, in this way, is already the process of power in which the living being takes with him, little by little, his other identity” (Chul Han, What is Power?), he goes so far as to say that the living being generates identity with the other, but ignores that in its genesis there is a metaphysical process.

Nietzsche will develop this issue as the will to power, in this case confused with the domination that we have already dealt with here and which is a sociological category, but power as a metaphor, in our view the most appropriate, is what we generate in our digestive interiority.

How do we digest the image of the other as our identity or not, as we recognize differences not only in the genotype, but mainly in the differences in feelings, judgments and decisions, more broadly according to our cosmovision.

So the desire for peace or war with what is different, tolerance or intolerance in diversities of thought about the world and things should not be in the category of right and wrong, of course, wrong should be punished, but what is wrong it must be circumscribed within the limits of the human, so if killing is wrong, war is a serious mistake where one people can exterminate another.

The renunciation of this metaphysical power, generated in our interiority and our vision of the world, must always be internalized (digested) also as a will, a command, of the non-power.

The biblical lesson on this issue, described as the “temptations of Christ”, is found in the passage Mt 4,1-11.

In the passage after fasting and renouncing the power to turn stones into bread and saying that he should fall on the city of Jerusalem, the devil tempts him with power and shows him the kingdoms of the world: “and he said to him: “I will give you all this, if you kneel before me to worship me.” Jesus said to him, “Get thee behind me, Satan, for it is written, ‘You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve. Then the devil left him. And the angels approached and served Jesus ′′ (Mt 4. 9-11).



Power and soul

23 Feb

There is nothing in the sociological discourse that actually unveils what the Spirit is, the great reason why philosophy came to re-work the question of the Other (Levinas, Ricoeur and even Habermas and Chul-Han resumed it) is that the vision idealist is centered on the “I”, vulgar thought has also followed this path: the “mystery”, the key to success, etc.

To have a relationship with the soul, it is necessary to know not the ex-sistence (ex-outside and cistere – cistern), but that God is, his essence is Being in his fullness and thus in him there is ontological fullness and thus the soul, from the Greek anima, is what He inserts into man to give him life.

Thus, its power is ontological, Byung Chul Han manages to relate Heidegger with his conception of power, and also of religion with power, but his reading is dualistic at this point, either religion or ontology, it is true that there is a theo-ontology, but there is a strong relationship.

The relationship that Chul Han establishes is described as follows: “Although God is ‘subjectivity’, this is not exhausted in the abstract identity, without content, of ‘I am I’. He does not remain in an eternal silence and hermeticism´” (Han, 2019, p. 120), quotes he takes from Lectures in the philosophy of religion by Hegel, and it is not surprising that he thinks, he is close to Buddhism and asceticism it’s human.

We already wrote in the previous post that God is power in the Hegelian view, and Chul Han describes it from the idealist idea: “for He is a power of being Himself” (Han, 2019, p. 121), and thus there is no relationship of creation (and not immanence) with everything that exists, including man and his soul. Unlike the Spirit developed by Hegel (Phenomenology of the Spirit), without the relationship with the soul there is no Trinitarian God, in addition to the divine-human Jesus, the Holy Spirit, third person.

Through a true asceticism, man knows a true power, which is not domination in its sociological description, but an ontological relationship with its ascension, through which the biblical reading says man truly rises.

A passage from the divine reading, in which Matthew reveals as a lesson from Jesus (Mt 4,25): “For what good is it for a man to gain the whole world if he loses himself and destroys himself?”, that is, if he destroys his soul.

Han, Byung-Chul. (2018) What is power?. NY; Wiley. (2019 portuguese version)