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Fraternity, worldview and religion

05 Jul

I do not know the religion of the captain of Sea Watch, but the fraternal worldview of captain Carola Rackete (picture), unjustly imprisoned and brought to trial and released only these days, is undoubtedly the only real manifestation of worldliness in the contemporary world.
The press reported little, the Italian authorities raged against the captain’s “rebellion” to rescue shipwrecks and dock in Lampedusa in Italy, against the determination of the local maritime police, but this is the true brotherhood and religion of seeing all peoples as deserving of the same fraternity and respect.
Captain Rackete has been accused of crimes of resistance or violence against the Italian warship and attempted shipwreck for having collided with a patrol of the Financial Guard (Maritime Police of the Italian borders), and the European newspapers that always boast of any attitude in Latin America or Africa has barely reported Rackete’s arrest.
Yet the old colonialist view of looking disdainfully at the rest of the world, which is not just the American, remains and little look at its crimes and atrocities, especially against other peoples and nations that have a different worldview from Europe.
They do not recognize the penumbra and the blindness that they live, not even the worldview itself is very clear, besides the political and economic interests, little or nothing remains of a respect for other peoples and cultures, and little recognizes the own decadence and crisis of thought.
The arrogance of a limited worldview, despite its origin in Christianity, holds true for much of European thought, it is a fact that there is resistance and protesting groups, to the seemingly fraternal worldview of Europe, that biblical saying about Pharisaism in the time of Jesus , Luke 10: 12: “I tell you that on that day Sodom will be treated less severely than this city,” referring to people who rejected the fraternal Christian message.
Of course, one can only speak of a Christianity with a worldview of respect and true brotherhood with all peoples and cultures, for the rest is Pharisaism and cultural pride.
The contemptuous look at the peoples suffered, exploited and colonized is still stigma of our time, is still the result of a culture of domination and exploitation of peoples and nature.
Sea-Watch captain Rackete speaks after release from house arrest:

 

Cosmology, Worldview and Dialogue

04 Jul

The origin of the Greek word “kosmos” is linked to the idea of order, universe (or multiverse), beauty and harmony, also the cosmos through the position of the stars helped to organize the calendar in the origin of human history, cosmogonies and visions of the beginning and end of the uni- multiverse, of nature and of man.
The absence of a worldview also impoverishes the view of Being, Emanuel Lévinas examining the theme in his book Ethics and Infinity, a radical critique of the category of totality, typical of Western philosophy that led to the cult of Same and Neutral, absolute thought which led to tyrannies and totalizing ideologies.
In Aristotelian physics, previous to modern physics and unthinkable at that time an astrophysics of the multiverse, he elaborated a static model, of eternal flow of the becoming, submitted to an order, the Copernican revolution put everything in motion, and modern astrophysics recovered the model of “Infinite”, where matter and dark energy dominate 96% of the universe.
The cosmogonies are fundamental to understand the formation of cultures and religious thoughts of diverse peoples, legends and myths can usually be thought around a metaphysics, and the beliefs that make them possible as an explanation of the world.
The worldview is present in any form of thought, so materialism, idealism and spiritualism are cosmovisions, as a partial apprehension of the totality and the solution and encounter of the Other are made in function of this worldview.
Thus, in a dialogue of cultures, imperative for a globalizing world and the demand of a global citizenship although not recognized, it is necessary clarifications of this cosmovision, of way totalizing and while admits the infinite like mystery and becoming.
We find in the Basic Dictionary of Philosophy (Jupiassu, Marcondes, 2008) that cosmology supposes the possibility of a knowledge of the world as a system and as an expression of a discourse, the postulate of a totalization of the world, if made by knowledge, of an eventual cosmology of knowledge itself.

JAPIASSÚ, Hilton e MARCONDES, Danilo. (2008) Dicionário Básico de Filosofia. (Basic Dictionary of Philosophy), 5a.ed. Rio de Janeiro: Zahar.
The video below shows the Cosmic vision of David Southwood of ESA (European Space Agency):

 

Uni-verse or multi-verse

03 Jul

It is not a joke with verses and poetry, we have already seen and posited that the universe is made up of frequencies that in the last instance is music, that the first energy released by the universe were frequencies that are ultimately light, now there is a new enigma and there is more than one universe, a multiverse.
Three aspects may lead to the idea of the multiverse, two are already widely studied: the idea of cosmology that comes from the Greeks and today comes the deepest subtleties of matter and dark energy, called black holes that was enlarged with the idea of inflation, second the string theory that of simple hypothesis began to be studied and verified, and the third (or first in the historical sense, began with Hubble in 1929), the idea that the universe (the multiverse we know) is expanding then one day this united, the Big Bang.
The idea of an expanding non-expanding universe led to the second point of string theory, the mathematical-physical model suggests that the fundamental blocks are not points or particles, but strings that vibrate in a kind of cosmic symphony, emerging from music that these strings can play, however with small mathematical inconsistencies. It is these inconsistencies that create the need for a fourth nonlinear dimension such as we know (height, width and depth), but a micro-dimension that delimit how these “strings” can vibrate, the analogy with music is perfect because we only hear in a delimited frequency band, and they vibrate in a delimited range.
It is in this delimited range that is the black energy, it together with black matter composes 96% of the universe, what we know as “matter” is matter and barium energy, only 4%.
The forms present in string theory (photo) can be numerous and even infinite. The question remains if one day observation could make the vision of the multiverse possible, just as in 1964 the scientists Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson captured the background radiation that came from all directions of the cosmos were the proof of the Big Bang Theory.
Scientist Brian Greene explains that the theory of cosmic inflation may someday prove the existence of the Multiverse and explains how the evidence of this theory is already present in quantum theory and in the observation of dark energy.
Watch the Ted video that already has more than a five million views:

 

The majority and the identitary

02 Jul

Few know this name, the opposite of transsexual is cis, also Christianity and the fact of being white can be a difficulty of dialogue with other groups, however, democracy and rights require that these dialogues are also made.
It is not only an ideological or partisan position, but this is how one sees most, in the religious case there is still one thing unique in Brazil that could be positive and is not, the so-called religious syncretism.
I would say more in the Brazilian case, the blacks if counted browns and mulattos are majority, what would be the ideological war that a good part of the right thinks, nothing more than the refusal of the dialogue.
The dichotomy that has established itself in Brazilian society is detrimental to all Brazilians, and the so-called “cultural war” can lead the country to extremes never before thought.
The identitary that in the American case led a certain right to power, the opposition is not quite a left, in the Brazilian case it can open deep cracks in the nation, thinking of people and not just patriotic symbols, without this leading to a short-term perspective. In the long term, only a resumption of dialogue will make possible new advances and new ways of democratizing rights and also duties to its citizens, building a new identity citizenship requires that we see the whole of society as it is: a miscegenation of peoples, races and religions.
The studies done by Mario de Andrade for Macunaíma may be a good start to this dialogue, although of course there will be those who make him demonic as well. The process of “estrangement” from Brazilian society with its own identity, which is undoubtedly a miscegenation, can have two ways to deny a half of the population with catastrophic effects, or to include the two halves and lead the country to an example of tolerance.
I twist and fight for the second case, although at this point it seems almost impossible.
Among the various reviews I found on the Web, Luana Werb is a good introduction to reading Macunaíma, if you are interested, access the link below:

 

Democracy or identity politics

01 Jul

As soon as the term, initially identity politics, that of the genres, races and cultures that seek some respect and rights was popularized, there was not lacking those who hurriedly already throw themselves on the subject and did not deepen the question Among those who deepen the subject is the American political scientist and thinker.
Mark Lilla, whose specialty is the history of intellectuality, since speaking in philosophy is no more common, a professor at New York University, has one of the most read articles on theme, and has a video of his participation in the Frontiers of Thought.
asks three essential questions: What is democracy today? How do young people see their ideals? How did solidarity become a radical defense of individuality?
The latter seems strange but it is not, we post countless comments on idealism and its profound influence on contemporary culture, the intellectual history of Mark Lilla goes another way, but does not stop touching this essential issue: individualism. struggle for equality has won rights and has transformed society in a commendable and unquestionable way.
Until something changed. The search for a better world became the struggle for the world to recognize me. Mark Lilla explains the changes generated by this new paradigm.
What is democracy today? How do young people see their ideals? How did solidarity become a radical defense of individuality? His most read article last year in the New York Times, emphasizes that identities and flags of minority groups, the so-called identity politics embraced by the Demortal Party, are the primary responsible for the continued defeats of the left in the United States, would it be right? if we look at the Brazilian elections, I think that’s right.
First and foremost, it is not a question of abandoning these just flags, but of rethinking them to make the progress of humanity possible again and to avoid a setback. Follow the video of Mark Lilla, remembering that subtitles can be activated:

 

The reduction of the divine to human environment

28 Jun

It is possible to deny the existence of God, the argument of the evidence is naive, being neither logical as some modern rationalists wanted, nor human as some German idealists wanted and nor ontological as presented by Saint Anselm.

There is a truth that comes from Socrates that says that it is not with men, but among men, this means that it is both ontological and complex at the same time, and one can not deny the historical existence of Jesus, whether by his historical birth at a time when sense was obligatory, for this was born in Bethlehem, and the record of his death and crucifixion which is told by historians of the time, including Josephus and by Jewish historiography.

But what Nietzsche, born in a family of Lutheran religious has seen beyond his time, is a philosophical and historical evidence of the death of God, through his human epiphany through the historical figure of Jesus, at least to Christianity, while God can be thought of innumerable eschatologies present in almost every culture so as not to be exhaustive, for even the so-called barbarian peoples had some form of divinity.

But the cry of Nietzsche’s madman is the realization of the construction of idealist and positivist philosophy that he wished to take as a single discourse on reality, Thomas Aquinas and other medievals were realistic as a philosophical current, now has a dark sunset.

From this isolationist, individualistic and separatist philosophy of the world three forms of collective heresies follow: a merely human God, a purely divine God, and a total absence of the third divine person: the Holy Spirit, for whom there is no forgiveness.

This sin is not the mere denial of God, but its concrete negation is the negation of the Other. Teilhard Chardin says about the inclusion of the Other that this is the “divine medium”, the typical mystique of our time, which can also be expressed as “where two or more are in my name” (Mt 18:20), which is a “and you who say that I am” (Mt 16:15), which follows several passages of the relationship with the World and with God.

One can say that there are two reductions: the merely human and the merely divine, but the main reduction is the ignorance of a third reduction which is that of the action of the Holy Spirit. In the reduction of the divine, Jesus in miracles almost always asked for a description or made allusion to the faith of the healed, the gifted or just the wonder of contact like the blind Bartimaeus, the prophet Ana, Simeon, the paralytics, lepers or the woman to whom he directs word.

True eschatology sees not only principle or end, but both in relation to the daily life of human life, Teilhard Chardin makes reflection in the book The divine medium (1957): “the slowly accumulated tension between Humanity and God will reach the limits fixed by the possibilities of the world, and then it will be the end … that we should expect not as a catastrophe but as a ‘surrender’ to the world to which we must collaborate with all our Christian forces without fear of the world, because their spells could no longer hurt those to whom he has become, beyond himself, the Body of him who is the One who comes.”

Like the evangelist Luke (Luke 9:20), Matthew also repeats Jesus’ question to the disciples, Mt 16:15: “But who do you say that I am?”

CHARDIN, T. O meio divino (The Divine medium: Essay of inner life). Lisbon: 1957. (in portuguese).

 
 

God did not die, we killed him.

27 Jun

 

It is a bad reading of Nietzsche’s idea that God died, what happens in the reading of “The gaia science” (Nietszche, 2017), first that speaks of science, according to which Gaia in the Greek sense refers to Mother Earth and finally , the madman “began to shout incessantly: 
“I seek God. ” Let’s see his own text, although the translation may have imperfections: “crazy man. “They did not hear of this crazy man who lit a lantern in the morning and ran to the market, and he began to shout ceaselessly,” I’m looking for God! I seek God! “? “And as there were many of those who did not believe in God, he aroused a great laugh. So he’s lost? One of them asked. Did he lose himself as a child? Another said. Are you hiding? Is he afraid of us? Did you board a ship? You emigrated? They shouted and laughed at each other.
The madman threw himself between them and pierced them with his gaze. “Where did God go?” He shouted, “I’ll tell you! We killed them – you and me. We are all his killers! But how did we do it? How did we manage to drink the sea entirely? Who gave us the sponge to erase the horizon? What have we done to unleash the land of your sun? Where does she move now? Where do we move to? Away from all the suns? Do not we continually fall?
Back, to the sides, to the front, in all directions? Are there still ‘above’ and ‘below’? Do not we wander like that through an infinite nothingness? Do not we feel the breath of the vacuum? Has not he become colder? Does not darkness everlast? Do not we have to light lanterns in the morning? Did we not hear the noise of the gravediggers bury God? Do not we smell divine putrefaction? – the gods rot too! God is dead! God is still dead!
And we killed them! How can we console ourselves, murderers among the murderers? The strongest and most sacred the world had ever possessed bleed whole under our daggers – who will cleanse us this blood? With what water could we wash? What atoning rites, what sacred games will we have to invent? Is not the greatness of this act too great for us? Should not we ourselves become gods, to at least seem worthy of it?
There has never been a greater act – and whoever comes after us will belong, because of that act, to a story higher than the whole story until then! “At that moment he silenced the mad man, and again looked at his listeners: they too were silent looking amazed at him. “I come too soon,” he said then, “is not yet my time. This enormous event is on the way, it still walks: it has not yet reached the ears of men.
Sparkle and thunder need time, the light of the stars needs time, the acts, even after they was done, need time to be seen and heard. This act is still more distant to them than the furthest constellation – and yet they have committed! – It is also told the same day the mad man broke into several churches, and in each one intoned his Requiem aeternaum deo. Taken out and interrogated, he merely replied, “What are these churches, if not the mausoleums and tombs of God?”

In the next post, I suggest some interpretations, including a Christian one, now make yours.

NIETZSCHE, F. A gaia ciência. Aforismo 125, LeBooks, 2017. (in portuguese, ebook).

 

The crisis of religion and ignorance

26 Jun

In the foreword to the Brazilian edition of the book “The Essence of Christianity” (Feuerbach, 2007), the translator José da Silva Brandão presents a good synthesis of German thought and the root of the crisis of Western thought can be inserted in this context.
When Marx criticized religion, he did not criticize any religion, he criticized the synthesis of his time that hovered in the idealistic German thought, coming all practically from Kant, although later Schopenhauer and Nietzsche came to disrupt this, but also his thought can only be thought of From this crisis, Kierkegaard may perhaps be thought of, but his criticism is exactly the German philosophy of the time.
In the preface says the Brazilian translator: “after Kant, there were only two exits: either to legitimize human thought as something that only finds its element elaborable in the ideal and phenomenological field (Fichte, Shcelling and Hegel), or to recognize conscious knowledge is only an effect or superficial manifestation or even a representation of the most profound unconscious causes, such as instincts, desires, etc. (Schopenhauer, Eduard von Hartmann). “(Feuerbach, 2007, p.7), which is the presentation of the translator José da Silva Brandão.
It presents, in our view, Schleiermacher as a disciple of Hegel, he was a his reader, but his reintroduction of hermeneutics is fundamental to a critique of contemporary thought, by reducing God to what can be known by feeling.
For him as for many Hegelians “religion is anthropology” and not culture, this introduces religion into historical analysis and denies the existence of an essential and eternal Being. It is in this context that the so-called Hegelian Left appears, Marx calls them old Hegelians (Feuerbach, Strauss, Bruno Bauer, Max Stimer and Karl Marx who will break them), while the margin with two criticisms are Schopenhauer and Nietzsche.
Marx’s criticism of Feuerbach in the book Theses on Feuerbach is in fact theses against idealism and the old German idealism, in addition to the “idea” Feuerbach is an atheist theologian.
For Feuerbach, “man’s knowledge of God is only the self-knowledge of man and his own essence.”
He brings about a total reduction of theology and of all philosophy to anthropology since “the absolute being, the God of man, is his own essence” and it is in this anthropology that much of contemporary Christian thought is based, religious life continues.
This is religious alienation: to make as God something that, in fact, is unique and only the expression of man himself. Nietzsche will call this “death of God”, but its context will be different.
FEUERBACH, Ludwig. A essencia da cristandade (The essence of Christianity). Petrópolis, RJ: Vozes, 2007.
EdgarMorin says that the education system does not only produce knowledge, it produces ignorance and blindness, here is a video in the Roda Viva Program of the year 2000:.

 

Consciousness and Freedom in Morin

25 Jun

Freedom, liberalism, autonomy of reason, possibilities of countless experiences this was the fascination of the man of modernity, however he forgot his being. In his works almost always functional, Edgar Morin says in Freedom Anthropology: “Freedom is a possibility of choice”, therefore, between real and possible possibilities, without leaving aside, of course, the possibility of exploring and understanding what is imaginary.
Modern man with rationalism and the exploitation of knowledge: “Sapere aude,” cried Kant, he wanted to get rid of the constraints of the environment, and with the possibilities of ample use of intelligence and conscience he found himself subject to norms, taboos, myths, ideas, beliefs and ultimately to society, which imposes laws and prohibitions.
But Morin warns that we are also possessed by our ideas, and not only him but a whole group of thinkers affirm that we walk towards uniformity.
He described his method of the empire of environments, with this it is necessary to replace the concept of external environment that imposes fatalities on living beings by the “idea” of dependent antonomy [1], we are subject to the physicochemical environment, for example, but these are integrated into a living self-organization [2].
The third point is to understand what autonomy means, a more concrete form of freedom, it is dependent on the external environment from which it withdraws energy and organization, all living autonomy is dependent [3].
Before we are born, we have already posed with respect to the fetus inside the mother, we have inherited genes from the parents, then in the external environment the forms of accidents, losses, encounters intervene, and within each one there are several decisions that cannot be taken as the logic of decision of a machine, this involves aspects of changes of values and even of states of the soul, a conversion to a faith or a deconversion with new effects.
In a recent talk, Morin said that we walked like sleepwalkers to disaster, this is not the direction of an autonomy of freedom, but rather the idea of a greater restriction, what Martha Nussbaum called the “empire of fear.”
We return to becoming automata, and as we walk as somnambulists, possessed of a certain automatism, a certain possession, but even being machines, we are non-trivial machines, but the ideal is to overcome the machine state and acquire true consciousness: consciousness of Being.
In consciousness is the act of self-affirmation of the subject and in the act of self-affirmation of the subject is the act of self-affirmation of consciousness.
With all the criticism of the current conditions, Morin says that it is possible to live the poetry, see the video:

[1] E. MORIN, La Méthode 1. Paris, Seuil, 1977; idem, La Méthode 2, Paris, Seuil, 1980.
[2] Idem, La Méthode 2, págs. 108-110.
[3] Its dependence on the ecosystem is circular. The living portion of the ecosystem (biocenosis) consists of the interaction between living beings and depends on them, which in turn depend on it.

 

Cultural misery or ignorance

24 Jun

It is not a current phenomenon, although its visibility has increased with the new media, I remember the files (handouts), the manuals of this or that author that the measure that it saw via it is a vulgarity, or a good part of the pseudo -phylosophies in online videos today, but the background to it all is much worse.
Theodore Darlymple, a pseudonym of an English psychiatrist who worked in prisons with high-risk prisoners, identified human misery as the worst face of the culture, wisdom, and reason we live in, identifying three clear axes: the conveniences of corruption of the whole world, not only Brazil), sex and more sex and the death of childhood.
It is rare to find anyone innocent today, even a child, sexual trivialization did not lead to pleasure or good human conviviality, led to more violence, and Byung Chul-Han’s book goes further wrote in The Agony of Eros, wrote that already there is no love, only narcissism.
There is no doubt that there are social and economic reasons that link these facts, but what jumps the eye is that any hasty or similarly new thought appears as a great exercise of “creativity” and with a little examination it is easily seen that it is ignorance.
So themes that are no more than practical rules to live, appear as magical formulas, make campaigns and appear as miraculous source of youth, ease of enrichment or easy joy, see drugs and drinks, in short, ignorance and obscurity.
Religious or ideological pragmatism emerges as this formula, but they are not enough, corruption and illicit enrichment is also there and are themes throughout the world and hide the real interests behind beautiful words and attitudes, if not investigated in depth or nothing is perceived in real life.
There is a forgetting of being, the true religion, since religion is also subject to all kinds of ignorance, even justifying or defending it, see the irony with all manner of education, true religion and true morality.
Heidegger claimed the quest for the “clearing,” there is no doubt we live in obscure times.