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Educação e Complexidade

06 Apr

Dizer de maneira simples o que ele defende, toda síntese é um reducionista, mas poder-se-ia pensar numa mudança de paradigma onde no ensino as pessoas serão “capazes de compreender e enfrentar os problemas fundamentais da humanidade, cada vez mais complexos e globais”, a pandemia com certeza é um claro problema deste tipo.

O modelo atual leva a “negligenciar a formação integral e não prepara os alunos para mais tarde enfrentaram o imprevisto e a mudança”, novamente um exemplo aplicável a pandemia não nos adaptamos ao novo normal, porém a raiz de todo problema para o filósofo-educador Morin é que “o conhecimento está desintegrado em fragmentos disjuntos no interior das disciplinas, que não estão interligadas entre si e entre as quais não existe diálogo”, daí a dificuldade de se promover diálogo entre “especialistas” cuja visão é fixa e há uma “hiperespecialização”.

Quando Edgar Morin começou a escrever seu método, já era claro para muitos educadores que um novo modelo de educação deveria emergir, a Pandemia com uso de recursos online e também formas criativas de motivar e prender a atenção de alunos (na internet não se deve usar períodos longo, são cansativos e as pessoas saem) mostra bem isto.

O autor de “Cabeça bem-feita” e “Os sete saberes para a Educação do Futuro, Educar para a Era Planetária” lamenta, igualmente a “condição humana está totalmente ausente” no ensino: “Perguntas como o ´o que significa ser humano’ não são ensinadas”, de modo mais profundo e análogo Heidegger detectou uma ausência na filosofia da questão do Ser, claro que havia na filosofia antiga e no período medieval (a ontologia de Tomás de Aquino por exemplo), porém o Dasein de Heidegger, esse “ser-aí” ainda hoje, ligo e relido é mal compreendido.

Poderia ser perguntado o que é esse “ser” agora durante a Pandemia, algumas respostas são possíveis, mas inacabadas.

 

Vaccination and dangers ahead

05 Apr

Official data from the On Data in World (in graphic) website indicate a total vaccination in Brazil of 10.2 million people up to 3 days ago, while the world average is at the level of 6.5% and in countries like France, Italy and Germany they are inexplicable. rate close to 11% (even the WHO complained).

Only Israel close to 60% and the United Kingdom close to 50% have acceptable rates, in Latin America only Chile reached 30% and Uruguay to 20%, but it should be noted that Chile has a much smaller population of 18 million (less than the city ​​of São Paulo), and Uruguay 3.5 million (slightly larger than Belo Horizonte if counting the cities Betim, Contagem that are neighboring), Brazil is close to 10% counting the first dose according to data from the same site (on Data in World ).

Two dangers strongly threaten the contamination rates: the new strain that spreads more quickly and the cold that should arrive soon, according to experts from Butantã in Sao Paulo, it is not possible to speed up the vaccine production process, but on the other hand, FioCruz in Rio de Janeiro promises to deliver 1 million daily doses, would arrive at the end of April with at least 40 million vaccinated with the first dose (this would be close to 20% of the population), and hope that the cold will delay, not counting the shipments that will come from the abroad and Butantã itself.

Fortunately the weather has been hot, despite cold fronts threatening in the south, the expectation for the next 15 days (until April 20, therefore), is to stay warm. although it is rainy, but there is no correct weather data, the forecasts are not always right.

It is hoped that a vaccination will be able to stop the successive increase of infections, we have broken several records of infection and deaths, and the aggressiveness of the new strain acts in these two aspects.

An innovative drug is announced on the market, and filed the order on Anvisa on March 30, it is a combination of monoclonal antibodies bamlanivimab and etesevimab that was developed by the pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly, and can help in mild cases and people who have respiratory problems , is the first drug really valid in prevention and in mild cases that have respiratory comorbidities, it can reach the market in 30 days.

This medicine has a powerful asset, since it has already been released by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the drug regulator in the USA, in short it is necessary to think of creative solutions and preventive measures cannot be ruled out, of course they are really valid.

 

Its out for update

04 Apr

Happy easter!!!

We’ve been out to update the software.

 
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The Easter of Unleavened Bread to the Eucharist

01 Apr

It is true that Easter celebrated by Christians as the passion, death and resurrection of Jesus, was already celebrated with the passage of the Hebrew people from slavery in Egypt to their promised land, today Israel, however the festival is older.

The two strongest signs of Christianity are the death of Jesus precisely in the place of the lamb that is sacrificed at the Jewish feast, remembering the lamb that was sacrificed by Abraham in the place of his son, and his resurrection on Easter day, that is, the passage to eternal life.

However, the date is older, the Jewish calendar is lunisolar, that is, it is based on the cycles of the sun and the moon, unlike the Christian who is between the autumn / spring equinoxes in the northern hemisphere, and summer / autumn in the southern hemisphere.

The feast was still celebrated in the exile of the Jewish people in Egypt, it is estimated that about 3,500 years ago, they sacrificed a healthy lamb, one year old, on a date called the 14th of nissan, for a week they consumed unleavened bread and bitter herbs, and the blood of the animal was used to mark the thresholds of the Jewish homes, so that the passing angel of death would not enter those houses.

The breads consumed in this period because they are unleavened, are called unleavened bread that give rise to the feast before Easter, on Friday the lamb is sacrificed, and should be eaten before dawn and what is not eaten must be burned.

Jesus was sacrificed just on a Easter Friday and this confirms the prophetic sign foreseen in the Bible, and on Thursday he performs the supper with unleavened bread, however, while purifying and sharing the bread and wine, he says: “this is my body and my blood ”instituting the Christian Eucharist, in which an aortic event takes place, an inorganic substance becomes organic and in this case divine, this is the consecrated host.

Christians call it transubstantiation, but our whole body, except the soul for those who believe, is also composed of inorganic substance, and in Christian eschatology the entire universe will be transformed into the body of Christ, in the view of Teilhard Chardin it has always been, because everything he is your body.

So it can be said that the future of the universe and humanity is to become all Eucharistic.

 

 

The civilizing future

31 Mar

For many authors, World War I was already the end of a civilization, although the most popular literature at the time was courage and patriotism, the most lucid minds saw the absurdity of the war and among them was Teilhard Chardin who lost two brothers and one close friend Jean Boussac who would be a great name for French geology.

However, Chardin believed in the future, for him there is a “law of complexity and conscience”, which can be thought of in these terms: “Spiritual perfection (or conscious ´centrality´) and material synthesis (or complexity) are nothing more than the two aspects and the two related parts of the same phenomenon ”, so it does not separate our historical and spiritual evolution.

His belief in the future was clearly expressed in an unprecedented interview given to Marcel Brion in January 1952 and published in the French magazine “Les Nouvelles Littéraires”, in which he clarifies the vision that transcends evil and suffering, an accusation that was made to him as a apostasy.

In this interview, stating that it was after he worked as a makeup artist in the trenches of war, that he definitely coined the word Noosphere: “I used that term for the first time in one of my first essays on the Human Phenomenon, more or less in 1927, but, indeed, the idea of ​​a human spiritual community adjacent to the organic had been born in me in the trenches: the idea, I mean, of a kind of special biological “mega unit” that constitutes the thinking envelope of the earth. This is, for me, the noosphere ”.

Far from a belief in technization, says Chardin: “Neither mechanization, therefore, nor identification by fusion and loss of consciousness, but unification through laborious ultra-determination and love” and this can build a sustainable future for humanity.

At the end of the interview, he asks: “Isn’t the birth, around us, of such ´neo-humanism´ (linked, in my religious thought, to the progress of“ charity ”) not precisely one of the distinguishing characteristics of the times that we are going through? ”

Brion, Marcel. Rencontre avec le Père Teilhard de Chardin, “Les Nouvelles Littéraires”, january of 1951,

 

Criticism of inadequate reason

30 Mar

Western philosophy lives in an inadequate reason, it cannot be rational to ignore the pain, death and inclement weather of nature and life, life is death and resurrection and without understanding one does not understand the other, in the middle of a pandemic it is observed that not even religious understood this.

In Western philosophy, idealism and its dualistic logic predominate, so pain and happiness complement each other, that is why so much sadism is possible with one’s own body, with human relationships, although now there is a great appeal to empathy, we have already discussed the “third party included ”Of quantum physics and the logic of going beyond me-you.

Epicurus submitted the pain to the tetrapharmakon, the idea that to deny it would be useless so it is to seek the best way to live with it, it is the neurotic terrain of right and wrong, of good and evil, to reach a philosophical plain populated as I would say Espinosa, good and bad encounters.

Epicurus’ first two remedies refer to the intellect, proper to idealism, to undo all the irrational superstitions and fears that cause anguish in men, the death and anger of the gods, that is why the litany God is good, he is , but incompatible with evil and this does not mean the absence of pain, but its transposition to a greater good.

The last two remedies are a hedonistic “ethics”, it deals with the preventive characters of pain and the obtaining of pleasure, they also do not admit pain with a contingency of life, and not everything is inevitable, for example death, and so it remains improper reason.

Camus also addressed the issue, and we had the opportunity to make a post about the Myth of Sisyphus, and his starting point is to find happiness where it is possible in dark times (wars).

If we admit the pain, and go through it, we will find a third go-beyond or think towards the beyond, suggested by Emmanuel Lévinas, which means to move more and more towards the stranger, the mystery and the infinite (another Lévinas theme) and we have already mentioned here the Cosmos and Teilhard de Chardin’s vision of a Christian worldview.

We entered Easter week and with it in the Christian worldview, the sacrifice of Christ replaces the sacrifice of the lamb made by Abraham (in the three great monotheistic religions: Islam, Judaism and Christianity), so the pain enters a new meaning from of which afterlife is possible.

 

 

It is serious, but there can be hope

29 Mar

While Europe is experiencing the 3rd. wave, the number of infected and the severity of the disease makes the pandemic a humanitarian crisis in Brazil, the hope is to increase the rate of vaccination.

In Europe, the president of the European Commission, Ursula von der Leyen recognizes that the bloc of the 27 member countries “is not where it wanted” with immunization, and said that efforts should accelerate, despite the 2 billion doses contracted, for a population of 450 million, rates are still below 10%, which is very little due to the effort already made.

While Italy, Germany and France vaccination 10.3% outside the block the United Kingdom has already reached 36.5%, in Brazil close to 13% have already received the first dose, the official data is 15,503,373 for the first dose, while 4,699,784 for the second dose, in a total of more than 20 million, but the rate of infection and mortality grows, if we think that 12.5 million have already had covid-19 it can be said that in number there is a small advantage.

However, it is not so, it would be necessary that half of the population already had the first dose, but looking at the most optimistic case, which is the 38% of the United Kingdom, we see that the way to go is great.

The hope comes from the two institutes that develop the vaccine in Brazil, Butantã in São Paulo and FioCruz in Rio de Janeiro, it is believed that people over 60 years of age may be vaccinating in April, this would lead to a rate of just over 20% in the month, not counting the external contracts that can increase this number a lot, reaching an optimistic rate of 35%.

This is because the promise of 57,179,258 doses fell to 47,329,258 doses, among which the number decreased are Pfizer and Oxford, but with the promise of vaccines coming from abroad this rate could reach the goal expected in May for 47 657 058 just below the plan.

The rate will only exceed that planned in the month of August where more than 82 million doses are expected instead of the planned 35 million, so only in September can a drop in infections and deaths be expected, the health system is expected in trouble to get there.

The hope remains the growth of vaccines available on the market.

 

 

Love and divine logic

26 Mar

Only those who are able to overcome the limits of pain, hatred and contempt can approach a divine love, it is necessary to overcome the dualistic logic of the struggle between good and evil, deo-logic is the one that always meets for good, what the Greeks called agathosyne, which comes from Agathon kindness in a high sense of spirit, and which is pursuit.

There is a third party included who walks with us.

Pain is often what hurts the soul the most, but it can also be the one that broadens it, in these moments of evolution of the pandemic crisis in the country, we face the most serious need to seek strength beyond sanitary measures, weak is true, but the The defense of life must continue in those who show solidarity with those affected by the virus.

Only by understanding this deeper sense of pain will we be able to embrace it, to have hope and to look to a future where we will no longer have to run after lost time, but prepare and anticipate ourselves to avoid even worse humanitarian crises, which may come.

There is always a third possibility and just as pain is a transition from one state to another, what can arise after much suffering is an even greater novelty, a leap in quality in what we are as men and as nature, and overcoming current stage.

Edgar Morin wrote in his recent book It is necessary to change the path: lessons from the coronavirus, in this sense as well: “The utopia of the best of all worlds must give way to the hope of a better world. Like every great crisis, like every great collective unhappiness, our planetary crisis awakens hope. ”

It can thus be better understood, both in the theological and philosophical sense, in a central passage of Jesus’ passion when on the cross he shouts (Mark 1,34): “. 34At three in the afternoon, Jesus cried out in a loud voice: – “Eloi, Eloi, lamá sabactâni?”, Which means: “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?”, Because it is in this pain that the human and the divine become merge, emerging a new reality of death and resurrection, yes God died say the philosophers, but there is a third included: after he rose, so you can understand the passage from death to life.

All this pain, this “great collective unhappiness” says Morin awakens hope, because it is indeed a passage, perhaps the most painful that humanity has gone through, even though we have had hateful wars, even though we have conflicts of a social, ethnic and religious nature, there is a feeling of pain.

All this pain will only make sense if we find another way of looking at it right there in front.

 

 

The civilization crisis and the third excluded

25 Mar

The fact that we are stuck with dualism, now transformed into political polarization as if in nature and in society there were always only two poles in conflict without a third (or even fourth and fifth options) seems to make no sense with the logical paradox developed by Barsarab Nicolescu and find a parallel only in quantum physics (picture inside).

It is not true, Barsarab’s own text that calls for a Reform of Education and Thought (Barsarab, 1999) indicates that one can see in this change the center of a crisis greater than physical or logical issues, says Barsarab: “One thing it is certain: a great gap between the mentality of the actors and the internal development needs of a type of society invariably accompanies the fall of a civilization ”, or to put it another way, more ontological, between Being and Non-Being there is a Non-Being-being state that penetrates into dualisms and paradoxes.

Barsarab’s letter calling for an education reform, Edgar Morin also asks and others perceived a crisis in modernity as thought and education, the Third Included theorist T, gives a worrying sentence: “The risk is enormous, because the continuous expansion of Western civilization, on a world scale, would make the fall of that civilization equivalent to the fire of the entire planet, in no way comparable to the first two world wars ”.

There is also a linear and monodirectional thinking where the intention is always to polarize and create a “single” and monochromatic path, with the eternal danger of authoritarianism and deviations of power, in order to distend it would be necessary a more open world and where everyone is included. Education must walk and help this context, Barsarab says in his letter: “The harmony between mentalities and knowledge presupposes that such knowledge is intelligible, understandable. But can that understanding still exist, in the era of disciplinary big bang and extreme specialization? ”

The harsh reality of the pandemic shows that we oscillate between true solidarity and a relaxation to face the crisis, and the opportunistic polarization that wants to take advantage of the deaths and deviations from a poorly managed health crisis, in some more countries, but in almost all.

Barsarab’s sentence that seems harsh is not: “Is there anything between and across disciplines and beyond any and all disciplines? From the point of view of classical thought there is nothing, absolutely nothing.

The space in question is empty, completely empty, like the vacuum of “classical physics”, because it is in the void, in the epoché where a true philosophy can flourish, even when it is not (the suspension of judgment, the new horizons beyond the pre- concepts, etc.) is that it is .

 

 

The issue of Identity and its topicality

24 Mar

The question is so fundamental that it runs through philosophy since Parmênides, where “the same, because it is both to learn (to think) and also to be” (apud Heidegger) and for him to think and be are thought as the same, that is, identity is part of being, but this has a lot to do with the current moment.

When appealing to questions of identity we separate ourselves from people of different races, creeds or genders, we are trying to strengthen what is a false concept of identity because it both denies Being itself, and attempts to strengthen a certain group under an alleged identity and deny those that have little to do with belonging to that group or race.

This look at “different things” and recognizing some co-pertinence in them (belonging is just another way of giving identity to an isolated group or race), we must manifest differently what should be pointed out as sameness, that is, co-permanence groups with a diverse culture.

The logical sense of thinking about this identity is strong and has a presence in different cultures, both because the groups want to be strengthened through this “identity”, as well as following a binary and dualistic logic where A cannot be B, or they are the same and are the same, or they are different and contradictory, we have already pointed out in other texts the third included by Nicolescu Barsarab, in logic.

But in onto-logic Being is and can be non-Being, where there is a third term T that is both A and non-A, which even in physical reality has already been proven by quantum physics, the problem for dualistic philosophy is that this involves complexity.

There is a second way of seeing the question within the thinking (noein) where it is presented as Being, as was said at the beginning, in it two supposedly different things, they see each other as co-pertinence, which made some possible problematic interpretations in modernity.

Heidegger points to it, first quoting Parmenides and then developing “something absolutely different from what we ordinarily know as the doctrine of metaphysics, in which identity is part of being” (HEIDEGGER, 1973).

What Heidegger does is invert Hegel’s phrase: “identity is part of Being”, for “(…) the unity of identity is a fundamental feature of the being of the being. Everywhere, wherever we have a relationship with any type of being, we are challenged by identity.” (HEIDEGGER, 1973).

What Heidegger does is invert Hegel’s phrase: “identity is part of Being”, for “(…) the unity of identity is a fundamental feature of the being of the being. Everywhere, wherever we have a relationship with any type of being, we are challenged by identity.”(HEIDEGGER, 1973).

Going to the bottom of modern philosophy, where Hegel is a worthy representative, it can be said that there is a shift from Being (sein) to Being-there (Dasein) and perhaps the complexity will find there a point of support for those who want simplistic explanations. , it can be said that there is no displacement

However, it is more complex, as it involves existential aspects such as “worldliness”, “facticity” and “language”, without them we fall into simplistic explanations that only strengthen identity as a factor of difference and exclusion from the Other.

Heidegger, M. (1973) The principle of identity. In.Thinkers Brazilian Collection. Abril ed. Brazil, Rio de Janeiro.