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Shut me up, the stones will speak

12 Apr

It is not illusionism, pure utopia (Thomas Morus’s Utopia is the desire for a world with fairness), it is about understanding and respecting the mystery, of being aware that we do not know everything. It was not Einstein, but Heisenberg who first announced the quantum theory, which inspired Dali in his Mystical Manifesto, which changed the idea of ​​science, space, and time.

The image of the real black hole is just the tip of the iceberg of a mysterious universe, which surprises us and shows us our limitation.

Much of the contemporary regression is the incomprehension of cosmology and cosmogony, which in a different way are present in all cultures and religions.

Scientism, determinism, and materialism wanted to abolish the subjective thinking of cosmogonies, but it survived, and the discovery of the black hole is the enlargement of scientific cosmogony.

Says the biblical Reading (Lk 19:40) “if they shut me up, the stones will speak,” in the passage that the religious themselves asked Jesus not to speak of his eschatology, his mission and his end in the hands of the powerful. The quantum computation is explained by Shohini Ghose in 10 minutes:

 

 

The first image of the Black Hole

11 Apr

But in reality it is much more than that, and the proof of the theory of relativity, the variation of space and time (considered absolute in modernity), with the supermacious black hole photo, in the Center of The M87 Galaxy was unveiled on Wednesday at six simultaneous press conferences in Brussels, Washington, Santiago, Shanghai, Taipei and Tokyo.
It is the result of a decade of effort, made in five countries by the members of the EHT’s Collaboration of the Horizon of Events (EHT), and the imaging was done by telescopes connected to satellites in various parts of the earth see figure) to compose the image. But a black hole does not emit light, what was the photographer then-what does the image show at all? its shadow that it causes in its bright neighborhood, these rays of light in the surroundings deviated and distorted by its intense gravitational field form the reddish tones.
At its frontier happens a horizon of events, marking the points where even the light gets sucked out of gravity, is 2.5 times smaller than the shadow projects it, and yet measures 40 billion km from one side to the other, being this called Monster.
A 29-year-old scientist was important in the team of 30 researchers who helped compose the image, she is Katherine Bouman, a postdoctoral student at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and developed the algorithm for imaging.
The explanation of black holes is in video follow:

 

Philosophy: consolation, island and infinite

10 Apr

The section in which he analyzes the philosophy of Boethius, Anselm and Thomas Aquinas, Warburton shows his lack of appreciation of the religiosity of both, and the aspects analyzed: the consolation of Boethius’ philosophy and Anselm’s theological argument, which is not the same as Thomas Aquinas, and the absence of this analysis is presumed that perhaps it was for Warburton, are private.
Boethius (480-524 AD) is indeed important to be remembered, his discourse on Philosophy, an imaginary person in the period that is imprisoned as a consolation, although important, for it is his main known speech, his contribution through a fragment found of his writings: whether or not they exist universally, is his most important contribution. Important because it is about the issue will be the debate between realists and nominalists, whether the universals are things or merely words (for the nominalists).
Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) was a realist and his argument about rationalism as a complement to faith, is his most strongly theo-ontological argument, and his thesis on the being and the essence, his deeper contribution to philosophy.
But back to a brief History of the Philosophy of Nigel Warburton, when speaking of the ontological argument of Saint Anselm (1033-1109), about the existence of God, he presents as a counterpoint the “perfect island” of the monk Gaunilo de Marmoutier, an imaginary island that would so perfect that we could not imagine that there is a more perfect one than she, although no one was there.
His argument, which proves that such an island would not exist, in contrast to Anselm’s that there is nothing beyond God, for an imagined God cannot be greater than an existing God (Warburg, 2012, 52).
Now the island is finite, and God or the Universe or something that exists as a whole, an therefore ontological argument, “what is,” exists even though we can discuss what kind of being is.
What is the island’s faulty argument, then, is that it being finite may not have perfections of existing islands, and as an island it is “isolated” which is typical of positivist empiricism.
What Boethius, Anselm, and Thomas Aquinas did in the long period of maturing of philosophy and science, still remembered the scribes and offices in the monasteries, was the building of the basis for a rationalism that is not opposed to faith but ut complements it.
The vídeo shows ideas about The Consolation of Philosophy of the Boethius:

 

The Interiority: garden, indifference or puppets

09 Apr

Following a great development of the idea of the Polis, the next movement of thought goes into interiority, Aristotle had been the preceptor of Alexander the Great, who built the first great empire of antiquity, but then came the Roman Empire, the polis was confined in ideas about law, wars of conquest and finally the Roman pax, which was the surrender to the great empire.
The thought will confine the interiority, Warburton will call the chapter on Garden Epicurus, because he ran his school in a house with a garden, and his basic ideas was how to make the philosophy practical to make life happy, the practical was so rules of how to work inner issues, and between them avoiding ideas about death.
A second school that emerged in this period were called skeptics, for their indifference in many relevant matters, or Stoics because they met at the gates of the cities called “stoa”, hence the name of the school.
The basic idea is captured by Warburton as: “Our attitude toward what happens is within the limits of our control, though whatever happens is not.”(Warburton: 2012, 32).
To a birth of reason, because the Stoics believed that we should not feel sad about something wrong that happens to us, when we are deceived or have emotions that would hinder our thinking, we should always eliminate it completely.
Thus, if contemporary philosophy can be said to be objectivist in the sense of the subjectivists, the influence of Cicero on the Enlightenment is recognized, especially in Locke, Hume, and Montesquieu.
Finally, Augustine’s view of Warburton as that which all reality as “puppets” of divine thought, nothing more unjust, Augustine tried to free himself from the Manichean thought that imprisoned him in a struggle between good and evil, and his conversion to Christianity was just that cristianism isn’t manichaeism view of life.
I know that even Christian scholars see it that way, and Manichaeism is still an influential part of religion.

Warburton, N. Uma história da filosofia. São Paulo: LP&M, 2012. (in portuguese).
The philosopher Massimo Pugliucci has interess in stoicism and explain this thinking:

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A Relaxed History of Philosophy

08 Apr

Among the books I promised to read (post), Nigel Warburton’s Brief History of Philosophy (L & PM Pocket, 2017) was the first, had other priorities.

It is a relaxed and cheerful way of reading philosophy, it has the advantage of being easy for readers who are not initiated, but in my view lack some depth and some authors, just to name two Husserl and Heidegger, however the rest of the set is consistent.

It begins properly with Plato and Socrates, with the suggestive and philosophical title “The Man Who Asked” and from the beginning makes the reader reason to show the difference between being immoral and deceitful in a dialogue between Socrates and Euthydemus, which shows the reader the importance concepts and dialogue as a method of educating.

He will explain in a dialogue with Queroponte that when asking an old wise woman an oracle of Delphi, if there was someone wiser than Socrates receives the answer “No” and will say it to Socrates, who wonders about the fact since “I knew so little.”

He thus clarifies what philosophy is, as “love of wisdom” and from there his disciple will leave (in fact only Socrates is known by Plato), say that the wise should rule, and this will be how the Platonic school will begin, and then more later that of his disciple Aristotle.

The chapter of Aristotle has the title “The true happiness”, a curious and intelligent trait of Warburton that is to give soon in the title a key of reading, again which is simplistic, but it helps the reader and creates an interest in the subject.

The third that I comment on here, also a wise choice, is Pyrrhus, for he was the most skeptical of that time (365 BC), which is important for opposing dogmatism.

It is possible to elect this author because avoiding too much reading, which few people do today, is able to teach lay readers in the subject, for this is seen as popularizer of the philosophy.

 

Judge not to be judged

05 Apr

In addition to the resentment that holds the will to change and the renewal of relationships, the most criminal and cruel human sentiment is to judge, these days Hubert Nathan Myers and Uncle Clifford Williams Jr were released after 43 years in prison on charges of a crime.
Today they are 61 and 76, they were 18 and 34 when they were detained, the United States will indemnify them with 1.78 million euros, enough money? even if it were ten times as long as the young people who were still and lost were to be replaced, they hugged each other at the end of the prison.
Judging crimes is necessary, but justice exists precisely for this and to avoid abuses, especially against races, cultures and religions, the idea of conceiving a certain culture, race or creed as inferior or malignant in relation to others is that in fact evil .
Also in human relationships when we are unable to see what is good and positive in certain people make relationships poisoned and even those that are healthy can deteriorate through some hasty judgment.
We rarely know the set of facts, that is, what leads a person to a particular crime or problem, and it is not enough to propose a solution to it, you must give him the means to get out of the web that is often and can not detach itself .
The adulterous woman, who at the time of Jesus could be stoned in public, is saved when the Master asks those who wish to do so if anyone there had not sinned, they all go out and then he asks the woman John 8: 10-11: “Woman, where are they?” No one has condemned you? ” She replied, “No one, Lord.” Then Jesus said to him, “Neither do I condemn you.
You can go, and from now on sin no more, “that is, he acquitted her. That is, a family, a community, a society or a country begins to collapse if the judgment no longer finds a stopping point, and then begins to punish everyone.
Domestic violence is a disgusting type of violence, but violence itself is, there is a TED to show that it exists in many so-called “civilized” countries, but why does it exist?

 

What I learned from Portugal

04 Apr

I travel back to Brazil, already with great longing, it is always difficult to leave behind strong bonds that are built during life, I recognize that everything that thought of Portugal little stood, it is a fact that colonized Brazil, as it is also a fact which were the first great empire of modernity, an ability to fight and win as unique and commendable people.
Among the strong contacts I had with Portuguese culture I emphasize his love of culture, especially the music not only of fact but also popular and modern songs, his poetry and literature of Camões, Fernando Pessoa, Eça de Queiroz and many current as Saramago.
I highlight a man, a mystic and also a man of culture, who he knew at a glance, since he had read on the Web his book Repensar Portugal, which reads:
“Mystical people, but little metaphysical; lyric but little gregarious people; active but not very organized people; an empirical people, but a little pragmatic “, I emphasize” cohabiting people, but easily segregated by the arts of those who lead them “(Father Manuel Antunes, Repensar Portugal, 37).
His work is immense and includes Revista Brotéria, a whole work on education in his book Paidéia, influences that he maintains until today, at the Open University through Dr. José Eduardo Franco, who keeps alive his memory.
The revitalization of Lisbon, Oporto and small towns, here called villages, the eternal participation and preservation of the people of culture in the arts, cuisine, folklore and innumerable cultural centers, theaters and even TV programs dedicated to this.
I learned from this that there is a positive way of loving one’s own culture and fellow citizens, very different from an unhealthy, xenophobic and prejudiced nationalism. By the way, Portugal welcomes many peoples and nations and has curious connections with the Orient, such as Macau and Goa.
Lastly, I leave my gratitude, my love and my respect to the Portuguese people public, they are from now on my second homeland, chosen for love and reciprocity.
I leave this little video of Portugal for those who still do not know this beautiful country:

 

What are the issues and questions of Manovich

03 Apr

All philosophy, thought or thesis must start from one or more fundamental questions, in fact ask is more important than responds, that is, it must in outlining the purpose of the investigation to say what the question is investigated.
One can see, adapting to our object that is the art and computational media from its “artifacts”, see Manovich’s investigation with the following questions:
Considering that there is a change in course, with positive and negative factors, the questions proposed by the author are in our view: a) the extent to which the new media would depend on the ones that preceded them, in cultural and language arts? One can extend the discourse here using McLuhan: primary orality, writing and the Gutenberg Galaxy and digital electronics. b) this change made possible by digital technology, assuming the previous question as positive, would imply the emergence of new forms of culture? c) how the properties of artistic and moving images could be altered by them? But there are more three questions.
The animated changes of works of Van Gogh, and Gustav Klimpt (in Atelie Les Lumières) and Dali, for example, have already had some artistic facilities, in perspective of Atalie des Lumières. how would they incorporate the viewer? The emancipation of the spectator of Ranciere.  How would they represent space and time, that is, how do they act as objects in progress? Here we have made speculations and arts about the 4th dimension, others dimensions and hologram.
What are their aesthetic and technical developments (of this art)? the parenthesis is our addition.
To answer the perspetive of the author is to approach the artifacts conceived throughout the history of the media (other than McLuhan only the most recent): photographs, videos, works of art, films, etc. functioning as a “conceptual lens” that enables the possibility of an analytical focus of cultural arguments and developments.
What are the five principles that the author proposes? three are already consecrated: 1) numerical representation – new media are created by computers or by sources analogous to them, 2) automation – numerical codes, algorithms and modular programming enable automation, and 3) variability – an indeterminate number of media can be created from the same data. But two are new and relate to art: modularity – this principle can be known as the “fractal structure of new media,” modular and fractal because it is repeated at different scales, and, transcoding – through the computer, the media are transformed into data in order to have a structure of their own.
Manovich, Lev. The language of new media. MIT Press, 2001.
Rancière, J. The emancipated spectator. Verso Books. 2011.

 

The work of Lev Manovich

02 Apr

The what differentiates Manovich from other discourses is his understanding of computer language and his study of interfaces, this was reflected in his works such as the one presented at the Chelsea Art Museum in New York, the Finnish Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie in Karlsruhe, at The Walker Art Center (Minneapolis) and at the Museum of Contemporary Art Kiasma (Helsinki).
He has received numerous awards such as the Guggenheim Fellowship and the Digital Cultures Fellowship (University of California, Santa Barbara) and has been a reference professor of digital art at the California Institute of the Arts and the University of Arts and Design (Helsinki) and Arts Center Hong Kong), with a universal vision, therefore.
Without ignoring conventional readings and media, he shows that the reformulations of the categories for analysis of the current models function as a sort of genealogical map of the new media (I would say anthropological, but I understand the perspective of the author), where he seeks to sketch the possibilities and perspectives of the future.
In this way, both the perspective of the computer and its productive potential appear to be linked to its work as mediator of culture.
It appears in Manovich’s text: “Each stage in the history of computer media presents its own aesthetic opportunities as well as its own projection of the future: in short, its own ‘research paradigm’ “(Manovich, 2001).
And it points to the future by saying that some techniques: “At a later stage, these paradigms will be modified or even abandoned.
In this book, you wanted to the “new media research paradigm, during its first decade, before it falls asleep in invisibility,” which is where the ideas of interfaces should break.

The good self-presentation is this keynote: Museum without Walls: Using Big Cultural Data to Re-think Cultural History – Lev Manovich, in The Graduate Center, City University of New York, see the vídeo:

 

 

Another digital read

01 Apr

McLuhan in the 1960s (Understand Media) wrote about the transformation that the electronic era brought, however, the first integrated circuits (ICs, the chips that were in the bottom tiny transistors) just beginning to emerge, the first computer on the chip, the microprocessors only appeared in the 1970s.
The chips succeeded the Internet in the mid-1970s and the explosion of personal computers in the 1980s, only in 90 the Web was born, Lev Manovich was born in 1960.
His most influential book The language of new media was published in 2001 by MIT Press, as its name indicates is Russian, and his reflection goes beyond McLuhan because it speaks of the digital age, but as the name says it is with emphasis on language and analysis structures.
The author initially presents himself with his book, gives a presentation of Dziga Vertov’s Man with a Movie Camera (1929) to talk about the peculiarity of the new media, he is intelligent and daring his proposal since it goes from the word to the without losing sight of the language, his original question is What is new media?
What brought me closer to the book was the second chapter on interfaces, made in comparison to the cinema, in order to highlight the schemas of information organization (in a new sense, of course) and its role in today’s society, this is what called the book
What is technically called IHC (Human Computer Interaction), between the cinema and the printed word have a grammar (we say a syntax in computing) itself and without understanding it we run the risk of ignoring the interfaces with proper ownership, and that largely determine how the user (some thinkers also) relate to it, I make a metaphor, it would be like wanting to read a book thinking of it as having a mouse.
In 1993, he studied the origin of computational media and its relation with avant-garde art in the 1920s, we have already posited about Gustav Klimpt and others, finally worth reading.
Manovich, Lev. The language of new media. MIT Press, 2001.
The work of Gonçalo Marto made in the course of Communication Design of the Faculdade de Belas Artes em Lisboa (Faculty of Fine Arts of Lisbon) is good start: