Posts Tagged ‘Páscoa’

Pascal’s hope

13 Apr

If it is necessary to overcome the divisions, perhaps the biggest one is between religion and science, between theology is philosophy, between faith and reason.
Even those who recognize this urgency, due to addiction and the years dedicated to this division, are in contradiction.
In times of pandemic that unites all sincere hearts of love to humanity, time that we gain time to reflect away from the hustle and bustle of modern life maybe we can open up and unite the faith that gives hope to those anguished by fear and death is the struggle of science to overcome the virus.
The urgency also of more rigid protection measures and of serenity with the present difficulties.
Staying at home also means maintaining a “stop” time that does not mean leisure, finding good readings, good films and the indispensable family conversation, also the “media” of social networks can be well used.


The sense of pain and sacrifice

10 Apr

Death causes us pain, fear and even despair; in the face of a pandemic, it reveals aspects of tragedy, anxiety and apprehension, and we can do everything we can to prevent greater pain, but some go further and worry and donate to reduce the pain of others.
This is a human meaning, but the divine goes beyond what it means to be able to donate one’s life, or to put it at risk for the sake of the Other, only in this limit do we really understand the meaning.
Teilhard de Chardin, after admitting that the cross means “evasion out of this world” (p. 114), will explain to us that it is precisely it (in the present case the fear of death by the pandemic, “that exactly the path of human effort , supernaturally rectified and prolonged.
Because we have fully understood the meaning of the Cross, we no longer risk thinking that life is sad and ugly. We simply become more aware of its unspeakable seriousness.”(page 115).
So we thought of the happy days that we could walk freely and savor the air of the city, see the beaches now banned from being visited, the joyful family lunches, but it is for this loss that we now look with other eyes whose blindness could not allow.
How beautiful it would be an Easter Sunday with the whole family, or just going out to see happy autumn days in the southern hemisphere or early spring in the northern hemisphere, but it is this pain and this terrible pandemic that makes us “change glasses”, also in spiritual aspect.
So Chardin points out: “the cross is not an inhuman thing, but a superhuman one. We see well that the origin of Humanity today, the Cross was erected at the front of the road that leads to the highest peaks of creation ”, we will have to rethink home and social life after this pandemic. Chardin invites us to the mystery: “let us get closer. And we will recognize the flamed Seraph of the Alverne (picture), the one whose passion and compassion are “incendium mentis” *. For the Christian, it is not a question of disappearing in the shadow of the Cross, but of ascending in the light of the Cross.” (page 116).
Take advantage of this night of the pandemic to shed light on the “night of culture”, on the “night of God” and on the “night of the senses” that seemed to make us suppress all sensitivity to human life and the Other.
Let us live these three “nights” well to achieve an Easter (in sense of passage) for all humanity.

* incendium mentis – David Grummet says that in Chardin it is “fire of divine love in our soul”.
Chardin, T. (no year) O meio divino (The divine medium). Lisbon: Editorial Presença.


The supper of ashes

26 Feb

That defines how or man is by nature also understands or is a nature, or a substance proposed in an infinite number. and an initial structure in the philosophy of Nature and in the 1584 work (*Supper of Ashes) of Giordano Bruno, linked to Copernican theory, which creates an infinite universe with an omnipresent divider, an eternal matter and a permanent mutation.
Bruno declared himself a “realist” Copernican in 1582 in Paris, and when he arrived in London a year later, he placed himself on a non-cosmological level with extravagant ideals for the time, epoch or universe in which he lived and at the time of his living rooms. class. they are suspended, dedicated both to the theological radicalism of its Protestant public and to “atheistic” Aristotelianism.
A curious aspect of Bruno, like Leibniz and Spinoza or produced, is named his protagonist of Theophilus present in the Bible and what is meant by “son of God”, or that he too will separate himself from his Catholic religion or thought that Philosophy should to be independent of religion, through the passage through the Copernican heliocentrism through an infinite universe that we owe to Bruno.
According to his policy and / or being able to involve this infinite movement, he stated: “What ingenuity to ask to burn, to be able to move or to be able”, that was or its package with the donations of the power of religion and the nascent academy.
In his book “The supper of ashes” he made an extraordinary statement for the time: “The earth and the stars … how they dispense life and food from things, restoring all material that entrepreneurship, are themselves endowed with life, to a much greater extent, and to be alive, and in a voluntary, orderly and natural way, the second intrinsic principle, that they will move towards the Spanish and Spanish spaces with which I agree ”, he said, a universe of Copernicus.
t is important not to be true of Bruno, who also has controversial works on the Eucharist and the Virgin Mary, more or more important for our time and restoring a lost dialogue of old data, and for which the inquisitors continue. apostates Giordano Bruno took a big step in science and wanted a philosophy to be independent because of power and religious not inculturation, even if it leafs through and needs to overcoming fundamentalism and establish the Dialogue.

*Bruno, G. (1995) The Ash Wednesday Supper. Lawrence s. Lerner ¨Edward A. Gosselin (editors), University of Toronto Press.


Why did they kill Jesus?

14 Apr

Speculation about the existence of the “historical” figure of Jesus does not withstand historical SantaCeiaanalysis, the Census conducted at the birth of Jesus, the coincidence with the Jewish Passover period (the Jewish years count continues to be the old), the fact that it resurrected On the third day, may be questionable, but the very pursuit of his body to this day is a historical proof.

The fact that they did not find his body now makes skeptics claim their non-existence, post-truth time.

But because they killed him, he remembers who killed him, because we know the motives.

Jews killed by stoning, beheading or beheading, crucifixion was unknown and Roman method, which was for political reasons, and the release of one prisoner and the crucifixion of another was a way to “please” the Jews, who preferred to release Barabbas.

The Jewish (and Jewish) chiefs had mistrust because Jesus “violated” Jewish laws as “working” on the Sabbath, in fact healed and proclaimed “king” of the Jews, and repudiated Pilate’s power when he questioned whether he was King, thus phrases “king of the Jews” above the crucifix was a Roman irony, since the Jews wanted the platelet to be withdrawn.

So Jesus was killed for political reasons, and despite the jealousy of the Jewish leaders and Pilate’s washing of his hands, it was the Roman Empire that arrested him, tortured him, and placed him on a cross.
The fact that coincided with the Jewish Passover on the other hand, has religious significance, for the Jews was a passage, which comes from the Jewish origin of the word Pesaḥ or Pesach, that the Jews celebrate the departure of Egyptian slavery and the arrival in the holy land.
The rites have been adapted, but it is important to know that the famous supper of Jesus (the picture of Da Vinci) and Easter itself are festivals of Jewish origin, and the cup of Elijah which Jesus picks up to drink the wine, was the chalice destined To the Messiah, and the disciples understood when he made this gesture.
Good Friday, however, is the fundamental part of the passage, for the death and the cry of the Son of God, who on the cross no longer calls the Father, but says “My God, My God, because you forsook me”, its not Father but God.

The mystic Chiara Lubich offer a key of reading this named “Jesus Abandoned”, is the true God and true man, there he merges with humanity, the historical Jesus, in this right time for humanity is united to Father by suffer of Jesus.


Finititude, pain and transubstantiation

13 Apr

We have already affirmed that the whole path made Gadamer has elements toEucaristiaUniverso conclude that experience is the awareness of human finiteness itself and of limitations, and we quote Aeschylus’ classic reference which is quite illustrative: “to learn from suffering,” that is, In a painful way, man becomes aware of his separation from the divinity and temporality of his existence, but what is existence as spirit and biological matter?
To deal with nature, we have already said it implies differentiating the natural from the cultural, but if we think about the meaning of astrophysics and the formation of the cosmos and the planets, we will arrive where? When the first organic substance was formed, and how it came out of the nature of chemical compounds, rocks and cosmic dust.
It is known that water was an important element, but the first organic compound certainly originated from gases acting on some inorganic body, that is, somehow the first “substance” occurred, that is, an organic life formed from Of the inorganic.
But the opposite would be possible, an organic substance turn into inorganic, yes it is what happens to death, we can think of the pain as little announcements of a death of something organic in our organism that ceases to have a functionally correct form.
But transubstantiation is something more mysterious and profound, it would be consciously an organic Being to become an inorganic, and in the case of the early Christian mystic, the piece of unleavened bread, this comes from the Feast of Unleavened Bread made by the Jews from Moses until Our day in which the Eucharist means the transformation of the body and blood of Jesus into consecrated wafer, food for the disconnected soul of the cosmos, in this mystery, its reconnection with the cosmos, and therefore the true religation and thus essence of this “religion” Which is religare.
His feast is made on Holy Thursday, but transubstantiation is the feast of the whole cosmos, for at some point in history the sacred “body” has become a universe, and now this body becomes a piece of bread, a “Transubstantiation” that returns us to the whole universe


To leading wisdom and to master

07 Apr

The Greek word Paidagogos is formed by the word paidós (child) andJesusEoJumentinho agogos (conductor).

It was usually the work of the slave that took the child or young person to the formation, which derived in the same root word, meaning to give intellectual and cultural formation (Paidéia).

So pedagogy is linked to the act of leading from knowing, to leading wisdom and to master.

It should also be the driving of ways to bring the individual to knowledge, but it is not because the driver already owns knowledge and does not lead to the masters, to those who have built the knowledge, usually ignored or seen as “theorists”.

The Bible also shows a didactic example. When Jesus entered Jerusalem, he sent for a donkey to mount, he had no cavalry and pompous at his entrance although the people greeted him with branches of trees. This is the origin of Palm Sunday.

Many religious people today, instead of considering themselves a “donkey” who leads the master, put him in the place and want to reduce the wisdom of the master to his limited knowledge.

The reduction of knowledge, the so-called reductionism, the specialization of knowledge, knowing one area we want to be “wise” in several others, and especially the vulgarization of knowledge that humanity has already produced makes the colt a pseudo-wise, arrogant and vain. The Renaissance in the average idea was a resumption of antiquity, what will be the resumption of modernity lost in prejudices and reductions?


Carnis Levale, the origin of this party

25 Feb

The word carnival comes from the Latin carnis levale, to remove the flesh to the letter, Carnavalbut it would be the carnal feasts before the 40 days of Lent which is a period for the Christians waiting for the “Passover”, the feast of the passage from the land to the Salvation, not by chance, Lent begins when Lent begins, that is, on Ash Wednesday.

We have already mentioned the origins of this festival here, especially in Brazil, but we want to go deeper into the meaning of this “passage” between the period that would be carnal and the true Passover, 40 days later.

The forty days are a reference to the forty years that the Jews walked through the wilderness in search of the promised land, coming out of the bondage of Egypt, a reference made in Salm 94 (95) verse 10: “For forty years I was displeased with that generation, And I said, “It is a people of a deviant heart, who knoweth not my purposes,” until the coming of the Passover the passage into the Promised Land.

In the Christian reinterpretation of this Jewish passage, in which there is much in common, sometimes even the Christian Easter coincides with the Jewish one, since the Jewish calendar remained the count, since there is no b.C. (Before Christ) and the d.C. (after Christ), but the reference to the period when food was scarce, due to flight, the unleavened bread, because of the bread being made without leaven, because there was no time to ferment, at last a period of suffering and fasting .

In the Catholic resignification (the Lutheran church also does it) Lent is then this period of delivering difficulties and suffering, and the cruxification of Jesus is the apex of this feast and was done exactly in a helping “Passover”, then is rewarded by the immense grace that is salvation And resurrection of Christ, in the Jewish case the passage to the Promised Land, now Israel.

The carnival is therefore the last period that precedes these 40 days and the date is marked precisely because of the Pascal calendar.


The passion of Christ for atheists

03 Apr

Read and then re-read, always with some prejudice, Nietzsche’s book “The Antichrist” in the first reading wasPassionJesus materialistic and was reading Nietzsche as “irrationalism”, and recently as a Christian because it would be condoning the biggest “enemy” of human salvation .
Should have first read “The Birth of Tragedy or Hellenism and pessimism”, but actually lost prejudice when I met Oswaldo Giacoia Jr and he explained the life of Nietzsche, in particular, his pastor father and a Lutheran pietistic mother, this explains a lot of things.
Can be pretentious, but I think you can read it from the aesthetic, since it states: “. Only as an aesthetic phenomenon that existence and the world be justified forever” (Nietzsche, 1992, p. 47) and this may be an essential part of your thinking and remember here the writer Victor Hugo: “Art save the world”, see what you think of Greek tragedy.
What does this have to do with the passion of Christ, is his analysis of the role of “chorus” in the tragedy, and says the problem becomes severe in Euripides to delete the choir, destroys the tragedy and to involve the reason, eliminates one of his plays everything that is not found in life, but there is a choir. This is how many understood it as “irrational”, but the reason is in check.
But to completely eliminate the choir, Euripides did not consider the cognitive function, namely, that to know what the hero was thinking and so he, but eliminated the very information was transmitted to the public. Jacques Rancière apronfundou this in “The emancipation of the beholder,” or we could say the reintroduction of the choir.
It is the choir and not the confidant (Nietzsche cites the example of chaperone), whom the tragic hero is revealed, credibly way, your fears and deepest aspirations.
Christ calls intimately in various passages of God father, called the father of Abba would Dad or Daddy, in his prayer taught to the “choir” it creates the Our Father.
However the crucifixion he distances himself from God and closer to the human choir and says, “My God, My God, why hast thou forsaken me,” is your abandonment to man and his condition.
It is the tragedy of the crucifixion of Christ that invokes the choir of humanity, here He is the man.

NIETZSCHE, Friedrich, The Birth of Tragedy (Trans. Douglas Smith), Oxford University Press, 2008: pages in portuguese edition in text.


Banquets, dialogues, memory and love

02 Apr

Not only in the Christian liturgy, but in the whole philosophy and literature dining table has a strong meaning whenTheDinner speaking of relations and dialogue among its diners.

The Plato’s Symposium with Phaedrus, the two dialogues of Plato whose main theme Love, Banquet Plato he talks about the nature and qualities of love, but is primarily concerned with the issues surrounding the City and philosophers.

At the Last Supper of Jesus, after numerous conversations, some made based on parables, the parable of the talents of Lazarus and the rich, the last time worker, smart administrator and so many others, he conducts a dialogue with his apostles and prepares to leave his memory, but what would be the true memorial of Jesus.

He is explicit in the Last Supper, it was common wash their hands and feet at feasts, and Jesus begins with an unusual gesture, usually the slaves washed their feet, and Jesus himself will make this gesture, trying to teach humility and service to his disciples.

Then for supper, it was Pascal supper of the Jews, but was not made on Friday, He is on Thursday because the lamb should be Slain (dead) will be himself, and there is one second unusual gesture in Jewish supper there Elijah’s cup that is always part and Jesus taking this cup (usually there are individual cups) it will use this cup, indicating that He is the one that Elijah had announced to come, take it and give it to your friends , to take along with the bread already allocated, the bread in the Jewish supper is hidden and must be found, and then he will say what is your memorial:

In Paul’s letter to the Corinthians, Jesus says “Do this in memory of me” (1 Cor 11, 24) and complete:. “Every time, in fact, you eat this bread and drink this cup, you will be proclaiming the Lord’s death until he comes “(1 Cor 11, 26).

Jesus is speaking of his death which is the apex of his love, to give his life for humanity, which should happen in the coming hours when it will be delivered to their executioners.

Alice watched Forever, which tells the story of a teacher with early Alzheimer’s disease who is preparing to memory loss and death, the actress Julianne Moore won the Oscar for best actress, and the film’s director, Richard Glatzer died March 11 of ALS, there are therefore two life lessons in the film.

In literature many plots that take place around the table, a recent novel is “Dinner”, the dutch writer Herman Koch, one of the biggest best-sellers of 2012 Europe with more than 1 million copies sold and will now for the cinema.


The Paschal Mystery and the existence of God

01 Apr

Just as the Higgs particle explains by Standard Theory Physics, but valid only 4% of all universe called baryonPascoa (energy and mass of particles and sub-particles) and now try to unravel the mystery of the other 96% of mass and dark energy through a new experiment that can understand black holes and the parallel universe (our previous post), also two metaphysical questions remains: whence came the universe? God exists?

The research Hadron Collider’s on the particles and the parallel universe tries to answer the first of only physical way, but could the universe was created in which principle.

But that answer the universe can give us about God, if your start is explained and revealed.

There are two attempts at answers, call the science of assumptions, one of them explains that there would be a fine-tuning a chance as unlikely mathematical combinations that only the existence of a higher intelligence explain these combinations, Francis S. Collins who was director of the Project Human Genome and is director of the National Institute of Health (NIH), American organ Health research formulated this hypothesis.

For Collins, “The bottom line is no accident. It reflects the action of something that created the universe”, and tunnelling is a important physical research in quantic energies.

As for the physical atheist Victor Stenger, professor of Hawaii and author of “God: The Failed Hypothesis” (Deus: a hipótese falha, no translation in Brazil) rule out the possibility of fine tuning.

For him the universe was not tuned to us, we were we to meet his conditions, and cites old assumptions that have been refuted: “Until the 20th century, it was believed that the matter could not be created nor destroyed, only transformed from a type to another, “so it is impossible to create matter, the very existence would be a miracle, Einstein proved that can be created from energy, and physical proved it can be transported something like the teleportation of science fiction, and also the NASA looking for life on other planets.

In fact prove that it exists or does not exist remains mystery as the mystery of life and even more the mystery of death, and it is precisely this passage death-life that is Easter.

Easter, which is Christian continuity of Jewish festival that celebrates the passage of life in Egypt of slaves to the Promised Land, is for Christians the passage from death to life.