Posts Tagged ‘Páscoa’

Why did they kill Jesus?

14 Apr

Speculation about the existence of the “historical” figure of Jesus does not withstand historical SantaCeiaanalysis, the Census conducted at the birth of Jesus, the coincidence with the Jewish Passover period (the Jewish years count continues to be the old), the fact that it resurrected On the third day, may be questionable, but the very pursuit of his body to this day is a historical proof.

The fact that they did not find his body now makes skeptics claim their non-existence, post-truth time.

But because they killed him, he remembers who killed him, because we know the motives.

Jews killed by stoning, beheading or beheading, crucifixion was unknown and Roman method, which was for political reasons, and the release of one prisoner and the crucifixion of another was a way to “please” the Jews, who preferred to release Barabbas.

The Jewish (and Jewish) chiefs had mistrust because Jesus “violated” Jewish laws as “working” on the Sabbath, in fact healed and proclaimed “king” of the Jews, and repudiated Pilate’s power when he questioned whether he was King, thus phrases “king of the Jews” above the crucifix was a Roman irony, since the Jews wanted the platelet to be withdrawn.

So Jesus was killed for political reasons, and despite the jealousy of the Jewish leaders and Pilate’s washing of his hands, it was the Roman Empire that arrested him, tortured him, and placed him on a cross.
The fact that coincided with the Jewish Passover on the other hand, has religious significance, for the Jews was a passage, which comes from the Jewish origin of the word Pesaḥ or Pesach, that the Jews celebrate the departure of Egyptian slavery and the arrival in the holy land.
The rites have been adapted, but it is important to know that the famous supper of Jesus (the picture of Da Vinci) and Easter itself are festivals of Jewish origin, and the cup of Elijah which Jesus picks up to drink the wine, was the chalice destined To the Messiah, and the disciples understood when he made this gesture.
Good Friday, however, is the fundamental part of the passage, for the death and the cry of the Son of God, who on the cross no longer calls the Father, but says “My God, My God, because you forsook me”, its not Father but God.

The mystic Chiara Lubich offer a key of reading this named “Jesus Abandoned”, is the true God and true man, there he merges with humanity, the historical Jesus, in this right time for humanity is united to Father by suffer of Jesus.


Finititude, pain and transubstantiation

13 Apr

We have already affirmed that the whole path made Gadamer has elements toEucaristiaUniverso conclude that experience is the awareness of human finiteness itself and of limitations, and we quote Aeschylus’ classic reference which is quite illustrative: “to learn from suffering,” that is, In a painful way, man becomes aware of his separation from the divinity and temporality of his existence, but what is existence as spirit and biological matter?
To deal with nature, we have already said it implies differentiating the natural from the cultural, but if we think about the meaning of astrophysics and the formation of the cosmos and the planets, we will arrive where? When the first organic substance was formed, and how it came out of the nature of chemical compounds, rocks and cosmic dust.
It is known that water was an important element, but the first organic compound certainly originated from gases acting on some inorganic body, that is, somehow the first “substance” occurred, that is, an organic life formed from Of the inorganic.
But the opposite would be possible, an organic substance turn into inorganic, yes it is what happens to death, we can think of the pain as little announcements of a death of something organic in our organism that ceases to have a functionally correct form.
But transubstantiation is something more mysterious and profound, it would be consciously an organic Being to become an inorganic, and in the case of the early Christian mystic, the piece of unleavened bread, this comes from the Feast of Unleavened Bread made by the Jews from Moses until Our day in which the Eucharist means the transformation of the body and blood of Jesus into consecrated wafer, food for the disconnected soul of the cosmos, in this mystery, its reconnection with the cosmos, and therefore the true religation and thus essence of this “religion” Which is religare.
His feast is made on Holy Thursday, but transubstantiation is the feast of the whole cosmos, for at some point in history the sacred “body” has become a universe, and now this body becomes a piece of bread, a “Transubstantiation” that returns us to the whole universe


To leading wisdom and to master

07 Apr

The Greek word Paidagogos is formed by the word paidós (child) andJesusEoJumentinho agogos (conductor).

It was usually the work of the slave that took the child or young person to the formation, which derived in the same root word, meaning to give intellectual and cultural formation (Paidéia).

So pedagogy is linked to the act of leading from knowing, to leading wisdom and to master.

It should also be the driving of ways to bring the individual to knowledge, but it is not because the driver already owns knowledge and does not lead to the masters, to those who have built the knowledge, usually ignored or seen as “theorists”.

The Bible also shows a didactic example. When Jesus entered Jerusalem, he sent for a donkey to mount, he had no cavalry and pompous at his entrance although the people greeted him with branches of trees. This is the origin of Palm Sunday.

Many religious people today, instead of considering themselves a “donkey” who leads the master, put him in the place and want to reduce the wisdom of the master to his limited knowledge.

The reduction of knowledge, the so-called reductionism, the specialization of knowledge, knowing one area we want to be “wise” in several others, and especially the vulgarization of knowledge that humanity has already produced makes the colt a pseudo-wise, arrogant and vain. The Renaissance in the average idea was a resumption of antiquity, what will be the resumption of modernity lost in prejudices and reductions?


Carnis Levale, the origin of this party

25 Feb

The word carnival comes from the Latin carnis levale, to remove the flesh to the letter, Carnavalbut it would be the carnal feasts before the 40 days of Lent which is a period for the Christians waiting for the “Passover”, the feast of the passage from the land to the Salvation, not by chance, Lent begins when Lent begins, that is, on Ash Wednesday.

We have already mentioned the origins of this festival here, especially in Brazil, but we want to go deeper into the meaning of this “passage” between the period that would be carnal and the true Passover, 40 days later.

The forty days are a reference to the forty years that the Jews walked through the wilderness in search of the promised land, coming out of the bondage of Egypt, a reference made in Salm 94 (95) verse 10: “For forty years I was displeased with that generation, And I said, “It is a people of a deviant heart, who knoweth not my purposes,” until the coming of the Passover the passage into the Promised Land.

In the Christian reinterpretation of this Jewish passage, in which there is much in common, sometimes even the Christian Easter coincides with the Jewish one, since the Jewish calendar remained the count, since there is no b.C. (Before Christ) and the d.C. (after Christ), but the reference to the period when food was scarce, due to flight, the unleavened bread, because of the bread being made without leaven, because there was no time to ferment, at last a period of suffering and fasting .

In the Catholic resignification (the Lutheran church also does it) Lent is then this period of delivering difficulties and suffering, and the cruxification of Jesus is the apex of this feast and was done exactly in a helping “Passover”, then is rewarded by the immense grace that is salvation And resurrection of Christ, in the Jewish case the passage to the Promised Land, now Israel.

The carnival is therefore the last period that precedes these 40 days and the date is marked precisely because of the Pascal calendar.


The passion of Christ for atheists

03 Apr

Read and then re-read, always with some prejudice, Nietzsche’s book “The Antichrist” in the first reading wasPassionJesus materialistic and was reading Nietzsche as “irrationalism”, and recently as a Christian because it would be condoning the biggest “enemy” of human salvation .
Should have first read “The Birth of Tragedy or Hellenism and pessimism”, but actually lost prejudice when I met Oswaldo Giacoia Jr and he explained the life of Nietzsche, in particular, his pastor father and a Lutheran pietistic mother, this explains a lot of things.
Can be pretentious, but I think you can read it from the aesthetic, since it states: “. Only as an aesthetic phenomenon that existence and the world be justified forever” (Nietzsche, 1992, p. 47) and this may be an essential part of your thinking and remember here the writer Victor Hugo: “Art save the world”, see what you think of Greek tragedy.
What does this have to do with the passion of Christ, is his analysis of the role of “chorus” in the tragedy, and says the problem becomes severe in Euripides to delete the choir, destroys the tragedy and to involve the reason, eliminates one of his plays everything that is not found in life, but there is a choir. This is how many understood it as “irrational”, but the reason is in check.
But to completely eliminate the choir, Euripides did not consider the cognitive function, namely, that to know what the hero was thinking and so he, but eliminated the very information was transmitted to the public. Jacques Rancière apronfundou this in “The emancipation of the beholder,” or we could say the reintroduction of the choir.
It is the choir and not the confidant (Nietzsche cites the example of chaperone), whom the tragic hero is revealed, credibly way, your fears and deepest aspirations.
Christ calls intimately in various passages of God father, called the father of Abba would Dad or Daddy, in his prayer taught to the “choir” it creates the Our Father.
However the crucifixion he distances himself from God and closer to the human choir and says, “My God, My God, why hast thou forsaken me,” is your abandonment to man and his condition.
It is the tragedy of the crucifixion of Christ that invokes the choir of humanity, here He is the man.

NIETZSCHE, Friedrich, The Birth of Tragedy (Trans. Douglas Smith), Oxford University Press, 2008: pages in portuguese edition in text.


Banquets, dialogues, memory and love

02 Apr

Not only in the Christian liturgy, but in the whole philosophy and literature dining table has a strong meaning whenTheDinner speaking of relations and dialogue among its diners.

The Plato’s Symposium with Phaedrus, the two dialogues of Plato whose main theme Love, Banquet Plato he talks about the nature and qualities of love, but is primarily concerned with the issues surrounding the City and philosophers.

At the Last Supper of Jesus, after numerous conversations, some made based on parables, the parable of the talents of Lazarus and the rich, the last time worker, smart administrator and so many others, he conducts a dialogue with his apostles and prepares to leave his memory, but what would be the true memorial of Jesus.

He is explicit in the Last Supper, it was common wash their hands and feet at feasts, and Jesus begins with an unusual gesture, usually the slaves washed their feet, and Jesus himself will make this gesture, trying to teach humility and service to his disciples.

Then for supper, it was Pascal supper of the Jews, but was not made on Friday, He is on Thursday because the lamb should be Slain (dead) will be himself, and there is one second unusual gesture in Jewish supper there Elijah’s cup that is always part and Jesus taking this cup (usually there are individual cups) it will use this cup, indicating that He is the one that Elijah had announced to come, take it and give it to your friends , to take along with the bread already allocated, the bread in the Jewish supper is hidden and must be found, and then he will say what is your memorial:

In Paul’s letter to the Corinthians, Jesus says “Do this in memory of me” (1 Cor 11, 24) and complete:. “Every time, in fact, you eat this bread and drink this cup, you will be proclaiming the Lord’s death until he comes “(1 Cor 11, 26).

Jesus is speaking of his death which is the apex of his love, to give his life for humanity, which should happen in the coming hours when it will be delivered to their executioners.

Alice watched Forever, which tells the story of a teacher with early Alzheimer’s disease who is preparing to memory loss and death, the actress Julianne Moore won the Oscar for best actress, and the film’s director, Richard Glatzer died March 11 of ALS, there are therefore two life lessons in the film.

In literature many plots that take place around the table, a recent novel is “Dinner”, the dutch writer Herman Koch, one of the biggest best-sellers of 2012 Europe with more than 1 million copies sold and will now for the cinema.


The Paschal Mystery and the existence of God

01 Apr

Just as the Higgs particle explains by Standard Theory Physics, but valid only 4% of all universe called baryonPascoa (energy and mass of particles and sub-particles) and now try to unravel the mystery of the other 96% of mass and dark energy through a new experiment that can understand black holes and the parallel universe (our previous post), also two metaphysical questions remains: whence came the universe? God exists?

The research Hadron Collider’s on the particles and the parallel universe tries to answer the first of only physical way, but could the universe was created in which principle.

But that answer the universe can give us about God, if your start is explained and revealed.

There are two attempts at answers, call the science of assumptions, one of them explains that there would be a fine-tuning a chance as unlikely mathematical combinations that only the existence of a higher intelligence explain these combinations, Francis S. Collins who was director of the Project Human Genome and is director of the National Institute of Health (NIH), American organ Health research formulated this hypothesis.

For Collins, “The bottom line is no accident. It reflects the action of something that created the universe”, and tunnelling is a important physical research in quantic energies.

As for the physical atheist Victor Stenger, professor of Hawaii and author of “God: The Failed Hypothesis” (Deus: a hipótese falha, no translation in Brazil) rule out the possibility of fine tuning.

For him the universe was not tuned to us, we were we to meet his conditions, and cites old assumptions that have been refuted: “Until the 20th century, it was believed that the matter could not be created nor destroyed, only transformed from a type to another, “so it is impossible to create matter, the very existence would be a miracle, Einstein proved that can be created from energy, and physical proved it can be transported something like the teleportation of science fiction, and also the NASA looking for life on other planets.

In fact prove that it exists or does not exist remains mystery as the mystery of life and even more the mystery of death, and it is precisely this passage death-life that is Easter.

Easter, which is Christian continuity of Jewish festival that celebrates the passage of life in Egypt of slaves to the Promised Land, is for Christians the passage from death to life.


(Português) A Páscoa que temos e a que queremos

19 Apr

Sorry, this entry is only available in Brazilian Portuguese.


(Português) A mesa profana e a santa

17 Apr

Sorry, this entry is only available in Brazilian Portuguese.


Uma felicidade além do eu

30 Mar

Depois de tanto progresso técnico, científico e tecnológico, onde estaria a felicidade humana, Sêneca, pensador do século I da era cristã, apresenta algumas respostas:
“Todos os homens (…) querem viver felizes, mas, para descobrir o que torna a vida feliz, vai-se tentando, pois não é fácil alcançar a felicidade, uma vez que quanto mais a procuramos mais dela nos afastamos. Podemos nos enganar no caminho, tomar a direção errada; quanto maior a pressa, maior a distância”.

Não chega a ser uma resposta, mas há dicas: podemos nos enganar no caminho, então coragem e determinação para retomar a direção certa (ou pelo menos tentar), não ceder a pressa tão típica de nossos dias, não ficar apenas “procurando” pois existem pessoas capazes de nos ouvir e orientar, claro primeiro nossos entes mais próximos e depois aquelas pessoas que pela vida e pela conduta podem nos dizer algo.

Criado numa estrutura do sucesso individual, e do consumismo, a cultura do ter, o homem não tem tempo, paciência e coragem para encontrar-se com o Outro, na filosofia contemporânea isto é aprofundado por Levinas e Martin Buber, que mostra que não basta opor indivíduo a coletivo, mas o Outro, cada homem:
«O fato fundamental da existência humana não é o indivíduo enquanto tal, nem a coletividade enquanto tal. Consideradas em si mesmas, ambas as coisas são abstrações formidáveis. O fato fundamental da existência humana é o homem com o homem. O encontro do homem consigo próprio só pode verificar-se e, ao mesmo tempo, realizar-se como encontro do indivíduo com os seus companheiros». (Martin Buber)

O filósofo Heidegger chamou a atenção para o esquecimento do Ser, em função do Ente (as coisas que existem), mas alguns filósofos atuais chamaram a atenção para a superação da “existência monológica”, individual contrária a dialógica, segundo Martin Buber: “o homem não pode fazer-se inteiramente homem mediante a sua relação consigo próprio, mas somente graças à sua relação com outro homem”.

A existência dialógica: o “estar-a-dois-em-recíproca-presença” realiza-se no modo impar do encontro do homem com o homem, do eu com outrem (tu) e para quem crê o encontro com o Outro (Deus) no rosto do outro (Homem).

Para o filósofo Lévinas é a primazia da relação com o outro e, ao conferir a superioridade ao tu em relação ao eu, é revelada na epifania do rosto.

A ressurreição da Páscoa pode estar além dos ovos e bombons, num feliz encontro com o Outro.