Posts Tagged ‘sobrenatural’

The wisdom of pure thoughts

01 Oct

Simplicist is naive thinking, while simplicity is pure thinking, pure noesis.

It is not in the capacity for theoretical elaboration, in the bookish culture that resists wisdom, it unites simplicity (which is not simplistic) and complexity in the sense of putting everything under the cloak of nature and the universe and understanding that there is original knowledge that is not simplistic, but they were elaborated in real contact with nature, so I reject the idea of naturalization.

Culturalization is what has taken over the natural and perverted it, said philosopher, writer and indigenous leader Ailton Krenak of the current pandemic crisis: “Earth is speaking to humanity: ‘silence.’ This is also the meaning of withdrawal.”

Much of Western culture is in crisis, because it has brutally seized nature and does not want to understand it and has difficulty understanding visible and clear signs, this crisis comes from before the current technological revolution, many philosophers at the beginning of the century XX pointed to her, and the silence asked by Krenak can also be what Theodor Adorno identifies as true contemplation: “The bliss of contemplation consists in disenchanted enchantment.” Theodor Adorno, I remember that this philosopher is neither mystic nor religious.

Ailton Krenak wrote “Ideas to postpone the end of the world” (Cia. da Letras, s/a), within an indigenous cosmovision, but aware that this is a planetary problem, he said in an interview with Daily Estado de Minas (03 /04/2020): “I don’t understand where there is something other than nature. Everything is nature. The cosmos is nature. All I can think of is nature”, denouncing that the way we live is artificial and not in keeping with human nature.

Interpreting the book by Davi Kapenawa, another indigenous leader, Viveiro de Castro and Danowski also see that our “cultured” and Western thinking is concentrated in the world of merchandise, and Kapenawa says: “white people dream a lot, but they only dream of themselves”, that is, with its own culture without being able to contemplate a wider world, where everyone is present.

These worldviews may seem naive, but they mean that we must always think beyond our culture, also the Christian worldview calls for this effort, and after teaching his apostles what the master himself should go through, and they still don’t understand, Jesus will make use of of a new metaphor for them to think in a purer and less culturalized way.

In chapter 10 of the Gospel of Mark, seeing that they wanted to keep the children away from him, He says (Mk 10:14-15): “Let the children come to me. Do not forbid them, because the Kingdom of God belongs to those who are like them. Truly I say to you: whoever does not receive the Kingdom of God as a child will not enter it”.

The world to come, in different worldviews, even if they seem childish, shows the crisis and exhaustion of cultural thought in our time, and the exhaustion of natural means.


Between the natural and the Supernatural

10 Sep

The soul (anima in its original Greco-Latin version) was studied by almost all ancient philosophers, it can be summarized from the Latin “anima mundi” (soul of the world) as a cosmological concept of a ruling force of the universe by which the divine becomes manifested in laws that affect matter, or in the hypothesis of an immaterial force, as something inseparable from matter, is in Plato in the books The Republic and Timaeus.

Marsilio Vicino, Renaissance humanist, who wrote a Platonic Theology, defined it as “The soul can be called the center of nature, the intermediary of all things, the current of the world, the essence of everything, the knot and union of the world” , whatever the concept, it is a part of the natural that may have manifestations unknown to current science, and that is why it is supernatural.

But the natural that man seemed to dominate from the Enlightenment, revealed to the few more mysterious than imagined, at the beginning of the century the uncertainty principle gave rise to quantum physics and a tiny virus challenges us, and we have not overcome it, the relaxation can provoke a new crisis, like a poorly cured patient who wants to do activities that the disease does not allow.

In his book The Nature of Nature, not by chance his first book on his method of complexity, Edgar Morin will describe the Dasein of nature (from physis) as: “All systems, even those we abstractly and arbitrarily isolate from sets of which they are part (like the atom, which is moreover a partially ideal object, or like the molecule), they are necessarily rooted in the physis” (Morin, 1977, p. 133), and quoting Lupasco (creator of the idea of the included third party, state between being and non-being of matter): “A system can only be energetic” (idem).

Energy, complexity and mystery is therefore a characteristic of nature, and we have discovered over the last century that uncertainty must not only be part of a truly scientific method, its absence can lead to dogma and obscurantism.

How the supernatural manifests itself then depends on the cosmovision of each culture, without being confused with it, as it has a unique meaning within the eschatology that sees it, the beginning and end of everything, of the universe and its enigmas.

In Christian culture, the supernatural is present in the human revelation of a God who makes himself small, and the human condition is reduced to take him to the coming of eternity. Jesus forbade the apostles to speak openly about his divinity, but he questioned them (Mk 8.27-29):

“Who do men say that I am?”. They replied, “some say you are John the Baptist, some say you are Elijah, some say you are one of the prophets.” Then he asked: “And you, who do you say that I am?” Peter replied, “You are the Messiah.”

He talked separately with the disciples and was going to explain the kind of death he was going to die.

MORIN, E. THE METHOD 1. A natureza da NATUREZA (The nature of NATURE). Portugal: Europe-America Editions, 1977.



Entre o natural e sobre-natural

09 Apr

Não é assunto apenas religioso, o pensador e crítico literário Terry Eagleton (Salfold, Reino Unido, 1943) uniu uma não conformidade militante a uma sólida educação católica, com raízes também na crítica literária inglesa de Raymond Wiliams.

Para sintetizar em uma frase, claro toda síntese é reducionista e Eagleton merece ser lido, pode- se citá-lo: “o cristianismo e o marxismo têm um vínculo óbvio em que os dois querem ver os pobres no poder. A diferença é que isto, para a fé cristã, é um assunto escatológico, ou seja, vai além da história, enquanto o marxismo espera vê-lo realizar dentro da história da humanidade”, sim espera porque isto ainda não foi visto, os exemplos são inúmeros, e escatologia é uma visão de inicio e fim, dentro da história.

O simples fato que a comunidade cristã teria morrido não fosse o evento de Pentecostes, aos que não conhecem após a morte (e ressurreição) de Jesus, os discípulos estavam reunidos e veio entre eles o Espírito Santo (Jo 20,19-31), através do sopro que Jesus fez sobre eles.

Sem esta terceira pessoa que une está ligada às outras duas, natural e sobre-natural ficam na dualidade, apenas o natural que é o Jesus Humano (que é Deus também) e o sobre-natural (que é Deus) que ninguém viu, porém é possível senti-lo e isto requer uma presença do Espírito Santo.

A metodologia fenomenológica existe a Noesis (intuição no sentido de ligação ao objeto) porém nela se de fato for bem interpretada ocorre uma meta-nóia pois é oposta a dianóia, o pensar discursivo aquilo que a literatura atual transformou em narrativa, embora nem sempre a seja.

Assim a meta-nóia exige uma transformação interna espiritual, e isto significa mudar o modo de pensar, por isto algumas correntes da filosofia da mente adotam a noesis, porém o sentido correto é hipóstase que significa um pensar parecido ao ver, aquilo que pensamos “vendo” o objeto.

Pode-se dizer então que a filosofia é algo “de dentro para fora”, não é apenas contextual no sentido que o meio limita e forma o pensamento, ainda que exista a noema: o aspecto objetivo da experiência vivida, que dá consistência ao que é elaborado a partir dos sentidos.

O que une ambos é o pensar, o elaborar na mente a meta-nóia que exige mudar alguma coisa no pensamento e isto só é possível do epoché, recuperado do grego, o sentido husserliano do abrir- se ao novo, sem este novo não há metanóia, há apenas dianóia, discurso e narrativa.