Arquivo para a ‘Information ethics’ Categoria

Ethics and morals are important

26 Oct

From Greek society, through all cultures and generations, societies develop rules and moral conduct as part of their social stability, it is true that they must evolve, but without them the vacuum of organization and power leads to a cultural civilization crisis.

Even the Frankfurt school theorist Adorno wrote a book called “Minima moralia”, the book in addition to showing the overcoming of Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit, to the argument that the life “of the spirit only conquers its truth when it finds itself even in absolute detachment …it is not this power, like the positive, that separates itself from the negative” (Adorno, 1951, p. 5-6) and argues that this is due to his attachment to liberal thinking that overvalues ​​the individual.

Philosophizing on the conflict of generations, where he exposes problems of the various ages of life, he will state that: “With horror it must be recognized that many times already before, in opposition to the parents, because they represented the world, the bearer was in secret. voice of a worse world in the face of the bad world” (Adorno, 1951, p. 11).

So, unlike Marx who cursed the family, whoever wants to read his writing “The Holy Family”, Adorno will dissect marriages based on interests, saying “the more “generous” the mutual relationship between the spouses was originally, the less they had thought of property and obligation, the more odious will be the degradation; because it is within the scope of the legally indefinite that disputes, defamation and the incessant conflict of interests thrive! (Adorno, 1951, p. 21).

He makes an analogy with slamming the door, in the sense of respecting individuality and also having the lightness of care, compares this to the doors of cars and refrigerators: “It removes all hesitation, all care, all urbanity from gestures” (Adorno , p. 29) and explains the fact that they close on their own.

Although relatively old, its reading is current in confronting Hegel’s self-consciousness, which was the truth of self-certainty; said in Phenomenology: “the native realm of truth” for what today is the conscious self: “the reflection of the self as perplexity, as the perception of impotence: knowing that nothing is” (Adorno, 1951,p. 40).

Although relatively old, its reading is current in confronting Hegel’s self-consciousness, which was the truth of self-certainty; said in the Phenomenology: “the native realm of truth” for what today is the conscious self: “the reflection of the self as perplexity, as the perception of impotence: knowing that nothing is” (Adorno, 1951, p. 40).

He speaks of the crisis of thought: “always talk, never think” (p. 55), the absence of interiority in “inside and outside” (p. 57) and asks for “a morality of thought” (p. 64) in society of narratives.

Valuing family relationships, the relationship between parents and children, empathy and sensitivity still exist.

ADORNO, T. Minima Moralia, primeira edição 1951, Portugal: Lisboa, edições 70. (Pdf)


The Pharisee and the Sinner

21 Oct

There are personal and public sins, but the relationship between them is clear, whoever is not honest and morally upright individually will find it difficult to be so in public, and this is notorious.

False spirituality is one that hides its own interests behind religiosity without actually adhering to the values ​​of solidarity and fraternity necessary for this.

Each culture, religion or social group develops its own rites and languages, and sometimes, this makes manipulation easy by those who do not know in depth what is in each culture, as many have ancestral roots, it can be difficult to understand their social origin and their values, this makes manipulation easier.

However, what really reveals the true face of each culture is its public attitude, because what it really is is revealed in it.

There is an Aesop fable in which a cat becomes the most beautiful woman at a court party and enchants everyone, however when a mouse appears she devours it, showing her true face.

It is no different in religion, those who do not have true spirituality find some difficulty in public life with their values, they do not engage in dialogue because they are intolerant, they do not practice solidarity because they are selfish and they do not love because they are close to the rigidity of hatred and this difficulty see the different, the Other.

There are several biblical passages that refer to the theme, such as the one that calls false religious “whitewashed tombs”, another that says they praise God with words, but the heart is far away, but the clearest passage is that of the sinful  who sits at the back because he fears God and the Pharisee who sits at the front to magnify himself, at the end the text says (Lk 18:14): “I tell you, the latter went home justified, the other did not. For whoever exalts himself will be humbled, and whoever humbles himself will be exalted.”


There can be a fair division

20 Oct

The union of society and peoples has always been desirable in peaceful ways, which happens when it becomes unfeasible in a polarized society, something that some social forces not only encouraged but spread in the social fabric.

What happens on a broader horizon is war, in an environment closer to the citizen is the growth of hatred, intolerance and little empathy and dialogue.

Presenting values ​​that are not practiced is, in addition to hypocrisy, a great social decoy, one bets on what will never be accomplished, and both peace and war are achievable.

A fair division is thus one that, within a broad process of social division, of imposing ideas and political, religious, gender intolerance (heteros are also a gender) promotes concord and the possibility of dialogue, it is heroic, but it is true .

True because it promotes a fair division between the intolerant and the true and sincere democrats, who are peaceful and who want a coexistence between the different and the diverse, it is a type of division also because it separates the hypocrites from the realists and sincere.

These positions also require firmness, resilience and tenacity, it is not for the weak but for those who are truly strong, but without the use of brute force, they only use the coherence of ideas, arguments and are in fact open to dialogue.

It is the division with authoritarians, imposters, liars and demagogues, they never do what they actually claim to promote, they want to see only “their side” of history, only their version of the facts, their imposition of “community” ideas, but of few and not of the social set.

There is a simple reading of this type, they are characterized by arrogance, by the rejection of dialogue, the “other side” is always wrong, but the arguments are just irony and contempt.

Those who despise the different, the diverse, have no democratic basis or logic of dialogue, with these there is indeed a social division, because they are against peaceful coexistence between opposites.



Between faults and crimes

19 Oct

In the face of a situation of danger or pressure, we can all commit faults and mistakes, but the most socially punished crimes are those that are committed intentionally or worse still premeditated, carefully planned and with the refinements of evil.

There are also crimes that are tolerated and should not be, such as cases of prejudice or systematic theft, even of things of little value, society can and must defend itself in these cases to prevent what is evil from spreading, and if the justice is conniving it is also an accomplice in these crimes.

However, modern society does not know how to deal with human faults and mistakes and that the person has the right to correct himself or repair possible damages, given the religious message these people are liable to repair, but they must recognize the faults.

It can also happen that serious faults are committed by people who have a certain social respect, administrators, public figures and religious authorities and they do not recognize that their faults are equally grave and this type of hypocrisy or self-righteousness occurs with some frequency.

They are particularly serious because they are being practiced by those who should play the exact opposite role to what they do, and the power to culturally propagate evil is greater.

This needs to be socially exposed so that society can also defend these crimes, they are potentially greater because they go beyond the crime itself and spread false values.

The society that does not fight them becomes morally perverse and can reach the point of a civilizational rupture, wars in general are on these limits and for that reason alone they are dangerous.

A culture of peace must include in everyday values ​​messages referring to values ​​of peace.



The unwanted peace

12 Oct

Two sides measuring forces, with increasingly aggressive attacks, is not just what is happening in Ukraine, but the general civilizing climate, few believe in peace and reconciliation of peoples.

The civilizational crisis predates the two wars and for many analysts it expanded afterwards.

Even in the religious milieu, there are those who condemn, saying that they seek a “single religion” or the work of the devil will be a climate of tolerance and peace between religions, after all what Bible they read.

The latest attacks by Moscow on Ukraine, launched 80 missiles in several cities, including the capital Kiev, the objective was mainly to hit infrastructure, some cities had power cuts and supply difficulties, it is considered a response to the bombing of the bridge that connects the Crimea to Russia.

The G7 scheduled an emergency meeting (photo), we warned in a post that the wait for the G20 meeting for November was a very long period, and the northern hemisphere will already be on the verge of winter and dependent on Russian gas for heating environments.

The entire West condemned the Russian attacks, of course there are many websites and newsletters that are pro-Russia and in fact we warned in Monday’s post that a peace proposal would be possible.

Is Russia in despair over the setbacks or now we actually have a total and open war, what kind of response the G7 can give is a question, Ukraine wants a protective shield for these attacks, Russia wants recognition of the annexed regions.

Turkey’s Foreign Minister Mevlut Cabusoglu called for an urgent ceasefire, but stressed that a “just peace” would mean maintaining the integrity of Ukraine’s territory.

Yesterday’s G7 meeting announced “indefinite” support for Zelesnky, but practical is humanitarian aid until 2024, while the Ukrainian president calls for an air defense system that he called his “number 1 priority”, the war. goes beyond the limits.

Russia tries to drag Belarus into the war, while Ukraine involves the European Union.

When we see the sanity response coming from Turkey and a west dragging itself to war, we have to understand where this crisis of civilization comes from where hatred and intolerance spread.



Repentance, start over and grace

06 Oct

Repentance is not the same as remorse, it is linked to the pastand prevents a positive start, there is no awareness of guilt and a new state of grace is not achieved.

Grace is living life to the full, with the limits that life imposes on everyone, however repentant, you can compress the past strictly to what it was: a mistake, and live well the present and the future by overcoming an anguish that is inalienable responsibility for the fault or error committed.

To repent is to live intensely and truly in the present, even if some suffering or mark remains from the past, whoever took a step after that managed to start over.

Ludwig Feuerbach, best known for Marx’s Theses against his Hegelianism, called old Hegelianism, in his maturity wrote about remorse, his reading is important for the confrontation he makes both with Schopenhauer and with Kant.

Feuerbach recognizes the originality of the subject and proposes it in a broader scope of freedom, examining remorse and regret as conditions of imputability of an act,

In opposition to Schopenhauer, Feuerbach will affirm that the character of a man is not innate, nor unchangeable, that is why the death penalty is wrong, and here too, the discussion about the right of the Modern State on human life, an always controversial topic is important.

Against Schopenhauer, Feuerbach argues that man’s character is neither innate nor unchangeable, so the death penalty is mistaken.

The foundation of freedom is the self that acts in the game of passions and is essentially the relationship with the Other, which is widely explored in modern literature by Paul Ricoeur, Lèvinas and other authors, there is a phenomenological resumption of this issue.

The suggestions in the moral and legal field are essentially in relation to this relationship with others, and the suggestions in these fields are particularly interesting, but ethical questions remain, such as that of the absolute foundation of moral obligation, which is posed in Kant in the explanation of the which is moral conscience.

This discussion expands in some authors to the field of sensitivity (SERRAO, 2007) and mysticism (TOMASONI, 2010), where the issue of grace can be included more broadly, adding the recognition of grace where there is repentance and a new beginning.



Adriana  Veríssimo  SERRÃO (2007). Pensar  a sensibilidade.  Baumgarten  –  Kant  –  Feuerbach,  Lisboa,  Centro  de  Filosofia  da  Universidade  de  Lisboa, PT: Lisbon.

TOMASONI, Francesco (2010). Tra  misticismo  e  scienza:  l’uomo  e  la  sua  ‘sensibilità’  nell’Eklektik,  in: L’umanesimo scientifico dal Rinascimento all’Illuminismo, a cura di Lorenzo Bianchi e Gianni Paganini, IT: Napoli.  





Russian Roulette: The Atomic Peril

03 Oct

Russian and NATO rhetoric grows as Russia retreats from the Ukraine war, the forces of this country arrived in Lymann, a city within the Oblast (extado) of Donetsk, where contested plebiscites were held there and also in Luhansk, and Announcement of annexation to Russia.

The advance towards the Donetsk Oblast actually looks like a retreat of Russian troops, we warned last week that Russia would not react peacefully in a loss of the war, the annexation announcement demonstrates this, but the call-up of reservists seems to warn of something greater .

The call volume of 300,000 reservists doesn’t seem to be just a function of the Ukraine war, the nuclear threat from both Russia and the US government’s response don’t seem like bluffs, Putin himself said it wasn’t a bluff, and Western analysts say that Russian TV even mentions in its war news, Armageddon, alluding to the battle at the end of the world.

Only nine countries in the world have nuclear weapons of mass destruction, the two main powers in the conflict the United States and Russia, together have 12,853 nuclear warheads on the planet, of course what is known, and this is 90% of the total, China for example has only 350 warheads, North Korea makes a big deal out of less at 100, warheads are explosive charges having a cylindrical nuclear capsule placed inside a rocket, missile or projectile. India is fifth member.

Nuclear power plants should also be considered in this account, which once bombed can have even more devastating effects than warheads, but it is thought that at an early stage weapons considered “tactical” would be used, but it is evident that this would happen in a domino effect.

This whole scenario is terrifying, negotiation is always possible, China has already spoken out harshly warning of this possible spillover, but the preparation and tension between NATO and Russia seem to put at risk at the highest alert level.

Peace is always the path to the civilizing process, it has social and political nuances of course, but the defense of life and civilization must prevail over insanity, we hope.

The moments are of high tension and October will be very decisive for the conflict.



Wisdom and Love

29 Sep

*The previous text is wrong, because I had some security problem with my blog.

Perhaps the greatest of paradigms and thus the most susceptible to human errors is Love, one can speak of the Greek classification: eros, philia and agape, but I want to link it here to wisdom in the sense of full happiness, not the one that produces utilitarian but spiritual fruits.

There is a book “The shadow of love, on the concept of love in Heidegger” and another that was Hannah Arendt’s thesis, they do not seem to be but are linked, because it was during the thesis period that Heidegger and Arendt had a romance and so she began to be mentored by Karl Jaspers.

The great scientific theory of our time, both for Karl Popper and for Thomas Kuhn, two great philosophers of science, is the possibility that there will always be a course correction in scientific methods and theories so that man knows more about himself and nature that surrounds it.

Heidegger’s text, which is a compilation of letters, only exists in French, so let’s return to the German concept of “Dasein” now to re-signify it and give it a connotation linked to Love:

“In the usual meaning, however, it means, for example: the chair ‘is there’; the uncle “is there”, he arrived and is present; hence: presence” (Heidegger, 1994b, p. 300).

It may seem like a simple literary maneuver, but it is not, other authors (Fernandes, 2011) also make this allusion and even compare it with “parousia” and “adventus”, which acquire a more religious connotation, here it is not necessary.

Thus, it is a presence of an absence, but love also passes through language and thinking, so “thinking is, therefore, to found, in the human, the “medium” to give oneself to the truth of being. It is, therefore, to co-found the human as presence: to be the there-in-being. In this sense, the fundamental ontology is a rush towards the passage, to pack itself for the leap, a first movement in favor of the foundation of the truth of being in the human as presence. This entails a transformation of the human from the lord of beings into the shepherd of Being”.

And this is Sloterdijk’s main contestation in Heidegger, the failure of this human domestication, or what in Heidegger is “care” and that modernity has not been able to resolve.

Heidegger’s main idea about Love is its presence in an Absence, to which we can add what we developed in previous topics: working with uncertainty and errors, that is, knowing how to live and work in the face of the natural difficulties of life.

Quantum physics, for example, has its beginnings in the enunciation of Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, which stated that it was not possible to know exactly what the position of the particles of an atom was with exactitude, Planck who did not agree, it is his statement “I do not agree may God play dice”, went to the laboratory to prove this principle.

NASA (in the photo the crash of the spacecraft colliding with Dimorphos) has just made a scientific feat which is to hit a satellite of a small meteor, which does not pose any danger of collision with Earth, just to prove that it is possible to change course some celestial body, and with that, in case of danger to Earth, change its route.

The DART project is a test for a possible future mission to deflect an asteroid from colliding with Earth, for cosmic dimensions Dimorphos is small (160 m) and orbits another larger asteroid (780 m) called Didymos and form a binary system, the spacecraft that hit it was traveling at 22.015 km/h and the image seen from a telescope in Hawaii on Monday night (26/09) shows that the impact produced many fragments, the deviation from the route, however, is small.

Changing route is wise, when you admit the mistake, but it requires two steps: admitting the mistake and then having the humility to change route.


HEIDEGGER, M. (1994). Beiträge zur Philosophie (Vom Ereignis). Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann   

Fernandes, M. (2011) A. O cuidado como amor em Heidegger. Rev. Abordagem Gestalt. Vol. 1, n. 2, Brazil, Goiânia.




The gap between rich and poor

23 Sep

The most varied studies, we commented on some in this week’s posts, point to a practically stable separation between rich and poor when not growing in some countries, this model can never guarantee sustainable social human development, wars and pandemics increase this gap even more.

The most serious problem that is extreme poverty, we have already analyzed and published in February this year an analysis of global poverty, and also, in another post, the social problem after covid 19.

The sustainability of human economic and social development depends not only on increasing wealth and social production, it is necessary to find a balance where both social mobility of classes and ethnic mobility provide sustainability and overcome inequalities.

The problem of sustainability is not secondary, many models distribute wealth but impoverish the country as a whole, this is because the investment aspects and safer strategies of economic models are only thought of around income distribution, the opposite where there is only an increase without distribution is less sustainable.

For this model, the biblical parable of Lazarus and the Rich man, the poor man who lived on the margins and when the rich see himself condemned, here the parable is valid both personally and socially, asks that he be allowed to warn his relatives of this risk, but says the biblical prophets already said and you didn’t listen, how many people and political actions have already denounced the serious social gap.

For those who don’t know, the biblical parable says (Lk 16:19-24): “At that time, Jesus said to the Pharisees: 19 “There was a rich man, who dressed in fine and elegant clothes and held splendid parties every day. A poor man named Lazarus, full of wounds, was on the ground, at the rich man’s door. He wanted to satisfy his hunger with the leftovers that fell from the rich man’s table. And besides, the dogs came to lick their wounds. When the poor man died, the angels took him to Abraham. The rich man also died and was buried. In the region of the dead, in the midst of torments, the rich man lifted up his eyes and saw Abraham from afar, with Lazarus by his side. Then he cried out, ‘Father Abraham, have mercy on me! Tell Lazarus to wet the tip of his finger to cool my tongue, because I suffer a lot in these flames”. 

The rich man also asked to warn the living relatives, and he was reminded that they had (and have) the prophets.


Be fair in the little things

16 Sep

Money is in history and in life just a symbol of exchanges and goods that must circulate socially so that everyone has a dignified and fair life, dealing with it is something that should be treated with the same respect that people socially deserve.

A fair person is also fair in small things, social injustice does not start with big robberies, they are an indication that those people do or will one day do greater social injustices.

The public sphere is corrupted when those who determine social justice: rulers, judges and legislators have lost the notion and values ​​that small thefts and injustices can lead to big ones and make the whole society corrupt, then everyone will say this is normal.

When these values ​​start to become dubious, it means that morally society as a whole is shrouded in corruption, immorality and a great lack of ethics, everything that is public begins to fall apart and there appear profiteers and opportunists who will make use of public corruption.

The biblical reading (Lk 16,1-13) which speaks of a manager who, seeing that he was going to be fired, starts to negotiate with the debtors of a rich man, and calls the debtors and begins to reduce the debts, so it is not a smart but dishonest administrator.

The parable seems strange if it has not been read to the end, because when he begins to relieve his debts to save himself, he reveals his true character, which was to squander the master’s goods, says the reading in verses Lk 16, 10-11: “Whoever is not faithful in small things will not be faithful in great things either, and if you are not faithful in the use of unjust money, who will entrust you with true good?”.

The true good is nothing other than a full life, not only eternal life for those who believe, but also an earthly life, difficult perhaps, but serene for those who have not included in their daily life, in the “little things”, deviation, the theft and corruption of other people’s things or public goods.

Small vices lead to big ones, and they cannot lead to a full life, but increasingly troubled, more greed and lack of control of consumption and of life itself, it is the bad administrator who squandered the rich man’s goods, that is, we throw the real riches of life outside because of greed and consumerism.