Arquivo para a ‘Física’ Categoria

Volcanoes, between science and superstitions

28 Sep

The volcano in the Canary Islands, which has been burning for more than a week, and for the time being just increasing the volume and quantity of glowing lavas have raised questions and fears, not everything is really right, volcanologists and geologists have no forecast for the volcano to cool down and not all superstitions came only from prophecies and apocalyptics.

The possibility of a megatsunami, starting from the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean has more volcanoes and earthquakes in the so-called circle of fire (photo) than the Atlantic was studied after the Indonesia tsunami that gained notoriety, but it was Japan, which affected the Fukushima Plant the most amazing.

The warning came not from superstitious, but from British researchers in a 2001 article (Ward & Day, 2002), the article gained notoriety for directly citing the Canary Islands (see photo above), and was published in the scientific journal Yearbook of Science and Technology , carried out other studies in cases that have already happened, such as the 1st. April 1946 in the Aleutian Islands where there was a landslide similar to the one off the coast of Papua New Guinea.

Cited that the largest land displacement, which caused megatsunami, was the landslide in 1929 due to an earthquake in Newfoundland National Park, Canada, on the Burin peninsula, which reached the coast of Scotland and Holland, but only was noticed because of fragments that were deposited on the coasts of these countries.

The article carried out experiments by computer simulation, which shows that the efficiency of tsunami generation increases with the speed and volume of the landslide, and made a simulation precisely with the Cumbre Vieja volcano (fig. 3 above), on the island of La Palma (one of the Gran Canary Islands), and wrote verbatim: “continuous and recent movements of the flanks of a number of oceanic island volcanoes including Kilauea in Hawaii and Cumbre Vieja in La Palma in the Canary Islands are possibilities that these can break [the flanks] during an eruption in the not-too-distant future” (Ward & Day, 2001).

T he volume has increased since last Sunday (19/09) and one of the flanks opened, but it did not collapse and the lavas had not reached the sea until the present day yesterday.

We had other volcanoes during the year, in Italy Etna, in Russia the Ebeko volcano in the Kuril Islands and in Iceland the Fagradalsfjall, but these do not pose any danger, in the case of Iceland there was a period of interruption of air traffic in the region.

Other volcanoes in the world have manifested this year, in Africa the Nyiragongo in early June, in Indonesia the Sinabung in early March, in Guatemala the Fire Volcano, but the eruption has already ceased, there are others around the world, active volcanoes ( but not in eruption) there are more than a thousand altogether, Brazil is far from the tectonic plates that, in addition to volcanoes, cause earthquakes.

For a few hours the Cumbre Vieja Volcano stopped spouting lava, but it returned, whether the duration and volume of material will be sufficient for a tsunami depends on the intensity and duration, neither volcanologists nor geologists who follow the volcano can say with certainty.

Ward, N. and Day, Simon. Suboceanic Landslides. Steven Yearbook of Science and Technology,

Ward, N. and Day, Simon. (2001). Suboceanic Landslides. Steven Yearbook of Science and Technology, McGraw-Hill, Available in: ward&day.pdf (


The human purpose and its finitude

24 Sep

Unlike the machine that has the environment as its purpose(see previous post), the human purpose is to reaffirm existence through the perpetuation of life, and also everything that is alive can and should defend this existence, as explained by Edgar Morin:

“The impositions that inhibit enzymes, genes, and even cells, do not diminish a freedom that does not exist at this level, as freedom only emerges at a level of individual complexity where there are possibilities of choice; they inhibit qualities, possibilities of action or expression” (MORIN, 1977, 110), machines are not without purpose, but whatever they are, they are means.

But this freedom when it is at the human level, and it is “only at the level of individuals who have possibilities of choice, decision and complex development that impositions can be destructive of freedom, that is, become oppressive” (idem) .

It is the development of human culture that can develop these potentialities, as Morin says: “It is certainly culture that allows the development of the potentials of the human spirit” (ibid.), it depends, therefore, on the development of a culture of peace, solidarity and of preserving life within the human spirit.

Morin will say in the chapter of his conclusion on the “complexity of Nature”, that in the so-called “animistic” universe, or mythological in the case of the Greeks, “human beings were conceived in a cosmomorphic way, that is, made of the same fabric as the universe.” (MORIN, 1977, p. 333).

This presence of what Morin calls “generativity”, the animated and animating beings, all existing within the universe, implied a communication between the spheres: the physis, life and anthroposocial, if we extend these concepts to Sloterdijk’s spherology: anthropotechnic.

But as we reasoned a few posts ago, the separation of physis into nature (animate) and physics (inanimate) not only “disenchanted the universe, but also desolated it.”

He completes his reasoning with a sentence that shows our multiple crises and nights: “There are no more geniuses, nor spirits, nor souls, nor soul; there are no more gods; there is a God, strictly speaking, but elsewhere (the emphasis is on the author); there are no longer existing beings, with the exception of living beings, which certainly inhabit the physical universe, but come from another” (idem).

Thus he concludes that nature was returned to poets and physis to the Greeks, and so the universe of techniques (which are means) dominated life (which is purpose) and so “science and technique generate and manage, like gods, a world of objects” (MORIN, 1977, p. 334).

It does not let finalism (or fatalism) be the last word: “it is from the crisis of this science that new data and notions that allow us to reconstruct a new universe come out” (idem), quantum physics, from the third included (the quantum between two quanta) and entropy/neguentropy are renewed.

Every universe is “anima”, the theologian Teilhard Chardin also agrees with this thesis, and also that life is the complexification of the universe, in which the human phenomenon is its apex.

In addition to the animist or mythological interpretation for these purposes of life, which is death and life in life in death, a Heraclitian principle also cited by Morin, the Christian reflection on the passages already cited above about who Jesus is (Mk 8,27 and Mc 9,31), and He must suffer greatly.

It is complemented by the question about abandoning what is the transitory purpose of life (therefore only means) and if it is not useful for the ultimate purpose (and therefore, they are only means and should be relativized) if your hand, your foot or your eye leads you to sin (forget the ultimate end of human life which is the eternity of life) it is better to lose them to have the living purpose.

But his last word is to accept those who see this reality differently, if they are not against us, it is in our favor (Mk 8, 40) and (Mk 8,41) and “whoever gives you a drink of water , because ye are of Christ, he will not remain without receiving his reward”, so many can cooperate with the growth of the human anima, with the life and living Nature on which we all depend.




The complexity and its genesis

21 Sep

As we penetrate into the increasingly studied man-machine relationship, it is necessary to understand what has been theorized about nature so far, which means forming a model for nature, and in turn, making human and non-human collectives and individuals, composed in a culture, or in a tradition, or in a more general scope, what is articulated and what is only configured.

That is, the model may be subject to error or failure according to the areas implemented and can be determined by them, but by re-articulated it within its own history of creation, not naturalization but the culturalization of concepts, we understand the model that we have a priri, and that it is not always nature itself.

The one who penetrated deeper into this idea was Edgar Morin and from there conceived his method and developed complexity, conceiving nature requires ultimately preserving the network from which he conceptually emerged and correcting where the concepts were separated, identifying a network.

So it’s about identifying the culture that developed around nature, Morin puts it in lowercase to differentiate it from Nature itself in capital letters which is all that was said here and so the complex develops, which means what was “fabric together”.

What we then say about nature is the culture that developed around the idea that we could dominate it, but one of Francis Bacon’s maxims is that “we can’t dominate it if we don’t understand”, modern quantum physics, Modern astrophysics have shown how naive the models of Newton, Galileo and Copernicus were, but they were woven together to arrive at the new models proposed today.

Edgar Morin explains the “disorder of order” starting with two quotes to say that the order: “simplified laws invented by the wise” (Brillouin, 1959, p. 190), abstractions taken by the concrete (Whitehead, 1926)” (MORIN, 1977 , p. 76).

It is now, according to Morin, squeezed “between microphysical chaos and the diaspora”, and it matters to know how it was born: “How did it develop from scratch? How to conceive of it despite, with and in disorder? How can she appear to us as the sole sovereign of the universe if it is now so difficult to justify her existence? (idem).

What is the genesis? “the concept of order, in classical physics, was Ptolemaic. As in Ptolemy’s system, where suns and planets revolved around the Earth, everything revolved around an order”. (MORIN, 1977, p. 82).The Copernican revolution, however, was not the final word: “Hubble took away the entire astral or galactic center. And here is the great Meta-Copernican and Meta-Newtonian revolution, which went underground from Carnot and Boltzmann to Planck, Bohr, Einstein and Hubble. There is no longer a center of the world, whether it is the Earth, the sun, the galaxy or a group of galaxies” (idem)

And he continues: ”There is no longer an unmistakable axis of time, but an antagonistic double process that emerged from the same and single process. The universe is, therefore, simultaneously polycentric, centered, decentered, disseminated, diasporizing…” (ibid.).



What is natural and the possibility of knowing

15 Sep

The problem of knowing the world (natural and not cultural, this is what we have) must start from a premise of clearing our minds of cultural convictions, most of them idealistic, that blind us to the possibility of understanding that we do not dominate nature as proposed the Enlightenment, and worse, we run the risk of destroying it and putting civilization in check.

Quoting Edgar Morin in the epigraph of his general introduction of the book “The Nature of NATURE”, he write the second in capital letters even to deify it in the sense that it is still unknown to us, and contains mystery that affects us, as proved by the current Pandemic that still challenges us.

Edgar Morin, opening the first chapter: “The Spirit of the Valley”, quotes Karl Popper: “Personally I think there is at least one problem… that interests all thinking men: the problem of understanding the world, ourselves and our knowledge as part of the world”, so this knowledge is neither definitive nor eternal, as everything evolves and is perishable.

To introduce these convictions, he makes a second quote by Jacob Bronowski: “The concept of science is neither absolute nor eternal”, and he will make a third, which is for the next post.

He begins with 5 convictions that made him start this book and where is his “cogito” his suspension of judgment of everything he thought before, his first conviction of these problems states that he: “holds us to the present, they demand that we let go of it to consider them in depth” (Morin, 1977, pg. 13), and professes his second conviction: “the principles of knowledge hide what, henceforth, it is vital to know” (idem) thus detaches himself from his previous ideas.

His third conviction is the strongest, increasingly convinced that the relationship science Ʌ politics Ʌ ideology [Ʌ in text it´s triangle] when it is not invisible, continues to be treated in an indigent way, through the reabsorption of two of its terms in one of them that has become dominant” (idem) , gives you food for thought.

His fourth conviction is that “that the concepts we use to conceive our society — the whole society — are mutilated and lead to inevitably mutilating actions” (idem).

Finally, his fifth conviction is: “that anthroposocial science must be articulated in the science of nature, and that this articulation requires a reorganization of the structure of knowledge itself” (Idem), so the knowledge we have needs to be modified to from its bases.

He knew that his task was really encyclopedic and vast, that’s why he even isolated himself in a castle (I don’t have the precise data) because his task: “I myself needed exceptional circumstances and conditions’ to move from conviction to action, that is, to work” (idem).

And it is from there that he wrote his complex method with three initial questions: “What does the radical self of self-organization mean? • What is the organization? • What is the complexity?” (page 14).




The ineffable that exists and the metaphor

22 Jul

Many phenomena in nature and in a broader sense of the universe, although they may have explanations, are ineffable, that is, because even when described, they have limitations due to their complexity and not obviousness.

One of these phenomena is the quantum tunneling of quantum mechanics in which particles transpose energy states that “logically” would be prohibited, they escape from regions surrounded by potential barriers even though they have a kinetic energy lower than the barrier.

Einstein, Podolski and Rosen (EPR) wrote an article in the 1920s calling this effect “ghostly” but in the 1970s it was proven and also breaks with the classical thinking that there is A and non-A, there can be no third hypothesis, it exists and it is proven, at least in physics.

The ineffable in everyday life are human phenomena that cross the imaginary barrier and are physically realized, they are mysteries and they exist not only to demonstrate tricks that are convincing to deify this or that group, or to make a “magic”, that is, field of charlatans, but for a clear phenomenological awareness of something beyond the human.

One of the functions of the metaphor is to be able to describe this phenomenon without resorting to a very complex logic for common sense, and to allow many people to understand these mysteries.

The figure in the parable enters into this aspect, with a small difference from the metaphor by using examples from everyday life and common sense, it is pedagogical in explaining how the mystery of life (and also death) can be seen in order to understand the fate of humanity and what life is.

Far from explaining its origin in the physical sense, Genesis for example, refers to Adam and Eve, the fact that man came from some complex aspect of nature is explained as being made of clay, the metaphor is that man came from organic compounds of nature, and of course, after God blew his nostrils and gave “life” in the spiritual sense, it is not difficult to understand that this life exists.



Love and divine logic

26 Mar

Only those who are able to overcome the limits of pain, hatred and contempt can approach a divine love, it is necessary to overcome the dualistic logic of the struggle between good and evil, deo-logic is the one that always meets for good, what the Greeks called agathosyne, which comes from Agathon kindness in a high sense of spirit, and which is pursuit.

There is a third party included who walks with us.

Pain is often what hurts the soul the most, but it can also be the one that broadens it, in these moments of evolution of the pandemic crisis in the country, we face the most serious need to seek strength beyond sanitary measures, weak is true, but the The defense of life must continue in those who show solidarity with those affected by the virus.

Only by understanding this deeper sense of pain will we be able to embrace it, to have hope and to look to a future where we will no longer have to run after lost time, but prepare and anticipate ourselves to avoid even worse humanitarian crises, which may come.

There is always a third possibility and just as pain is a transition from one state to another, what can arise after much suffering is an even greater novelty, a leap in quality in what we are as men and as nature, and overcoming current stage.

Edgar Morin wrote in his recent book It is necessary to change the path: lessons from the coronavirus, in this sense as well: “The utopia of the best of all worlds must give way to the hope of a better world. Like every great crisis, like every great collective unhappiness, our planetary crisis awakens hope. ”

It can thus be better understood, both in the theological and philosophical sense, in a central passage of Jesus’ passion when on the cross he shouts (Mark 1,34): “. 34At three in the afternoon, Jesus cried out in a loud voice: – “Eloi, Eloi, lamá sabactâni?”, Which means: “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?”, Because it is in this pain that the human and the divine become merge, emerging a new reality of death and resurrection, yes God died say the philosophers, but there is a third included: after he rose, so you can understand the passage from death to life.

All this pain, this “great collective unhappiness” says Morin awakens hope, because it is indeed a passage, perhaps the most painful that humanity has gone through, even though we have had hateful wars, even though we have conflicts of a social, ethnic and religious nature, there is a feeling of pain.

All this pain will only make sense if we find another way of looking at it right there in front.



The civilization crisis and the third excluded

25 Mar

The fact that we are stuck with dualism, now transformed into political polarization as if in nature and in society there were always only two poles in conflict without a third (or even fourth and fifth options) seems to make no sense with the logical paradox developed by Barsarab Nicolescu and find a parallel only in quantum physics (picture inside).

It is not true, Barsarab’s own text that calls for a Reform of Education and Thought (Barsarab, 1999) indicates that one can see in this change the center of a crisis greater than physical or logical issues, says Barsarab: “One thing it is certain: a great gap between the mentality of the actors and the internal development needs of a type of society invariably accompanies the fall of a civilization ”, or to put it another way, more ontological, between Being and Non-Being there is a Non-Being-being state that penetrates into dualisms and paradoxes.

Barsarab’s letter calling for an education reform, Edgar Morin also asks and others perceived a crisis in modernity as thought and education, the Third Included theorist T, gives a worrying sentence: “The risk is enormous, because the continuous expansion of Western civilization, on a world scale, would make the fall of that civilization equivalent to the fire of the entire planet, in no way comparable to the first two world wars ”.

There is also a linear and monodirectional thinking where the intention is always to polarize and create a “single” and monochromatic path, with the eternal danger of authoritarianism and deviations of power, in order to distend it would be necessary a more open world and where everyone is included. Education must walk and help this context, Barsarab says in his letter: “The harmony between mentalities and knowledge presupposes that such knowledge is intelligible, understandable. But can that understanding still exist, in the era of disciplinary big bang and extreme specialization? ”

The harsh reality of the pandemic shows that we oscillate between true solidarity and a relaxation to face the crisis, and the opportunistic polarization that wants to take advantage of the deaths and deviations from a poorly managed health crisis, in some more countries, but in almost all.

Barsarab’s sentence that seems harsh is not: “Is there anything between and across disciplines and beyond any and all disciplines? From the point of view of classical thought there is nothing, absolutely nothing.

The space in question is empty, completely empty, like the vacuum of “classical physics”, because it is in the void, in the epoché where a true philosophy can flourish, even when it is not (the suspension of judgment, the new horizons beyond the pre- concepts, etc.) is that it is .



The grain of wheat dies to give life

19 Mar

Perhaps the deepest cosmic mystery is the death and appearance of stars, planets, comets and so many wandering stars in the Universe, and also in microscopic life it is like this, the virus needs a cell to live and there it can cause death or life, this is the cosmic-paschal mystery.

Chardin said about the Universe that on the Cosmos scale: “only the fantastic has the condition to be true”, the nebulae are stars with a simple composition of Helium and Hydrogen (they are the most common elements in the universe), when a gas contracts it heats up and the temperature depends on the density of the gas, the burning of Hydrogen will cause a nuclear fusion and a sun will appear, if it is not enough the so-called brown Dwarfs will appear, they are more planets than stars.

When the star gets colder and the density decreases by 8 times the mass of the sun, it becomes a White Dwarf, however as its nuclear fuel heats the temperature of its center, the stars expand to become the so-called Red Giants, between the white dwarfs and the Red Giants are planetary nebulae that are not really planets.

These are just one of the spectacular puzzles of the Cosmos, there are still neutron stars, black holes, asteroids and comets and now the newly discovered wandering planets that spin outside the circle of their main star and roam the immense universe.

And what to talk about the various theories about black holes, the most accepted theories is that what remains of the star’s death generates the neutron stars while if the mass is greater than 3 times the Sun generates a black hole, but there are other theories .

Death and life expressed in Christian cosmology may seem distant, but for Chardin it was not, since he defined the universe as “Christocentric”, that is, he all lives a paschal mystery.

So the biblical passage, especially in John 12: 22-33, has a text very close to these enigmas when Jesus says that the Son of Man will be glorified (it is interesting because the Son of God has the human dimension in the mouth of Jesus), and he says he is distressed, and that “what shall I say? ‘Dad, deliver me from this hour?’ But it was precisely this hour that I came. ”

And he says he came to glorify the Father, and this when he approaches his death on the cross, and he says when he is lifted up from the earth, I will draw everyone to me, indicating that the path of salvation exists, and the whole universe goes in this direction, thus man and ours. planet will also tend to this, as via Chardin.

In simpler words, Jesus explains: if the grain of wheat does not fall into the soil and die, it produces fruit.



The human future and unity

11 Mar

Several points of Teilhard Chardin’s thought coincide with the new theological currents that arise in the religious milieu, especially in the Catholic, but Chardin opened his spirit even more when he practically migrated to China, the environment and Eastern philosophy influenced him.

His originality is as much in the evolutionary synthesis of his vision, as in several aspects of a futuristic eschatology that covers the entire Cosmos and whose convergence he calls “Omega”, which is an individualized but not isolated force, different from authors who stop at criticism to the problem of contemporary individualism without understanding that individuation tends to this “Omega point” futuristic, evolution chases.

Some authors understand the Cristosphere as a recapitulation of everything, say some theologians, but the evolutionary process culminates like man, but it does not end with man, the universe, man and woman, the historical trajectory, everything responds to a path for the Parusia of the Lord, and it is inevitable and the highlight of a Christian eschatology, and to deny the end of everything is to deny the eschatological process or at least not fully understand it.

So says U. Zilles about Chardin: “It is the risen Christ, who incorporates the world and humanity into the Mystical Body, in the finish of the Total Christ”, so this means that the Earth and the Universe will be prepared for the Parusia of the Lord (or the return of Christ), in full eschatology.

As a force of individualized action Omega is not subject to time and space (current physics has already shown these concepts as not absolute), so properties such as autonomy, actuality, irreversibility and transcendence are not subject to temporal actions, but to Omega.

Chardin explains that the multiple ecological, physiological, psychological factors that bring living beings together, especially human beings, and that especially environmental, physical and spiritual conditions are extension and expression, at a level of complexity-consciousness energies that they can bring Omega closer together.

Let it be said in passing that everything is in the various passages of Jesus (approaching the humble, dialogue with public sinners and finally handing over to the hands of the bad religious and politicians of his time), what Chardin wants to say is even further, that if we understand complexity-awareness, we help humanity to make a leap in quality that brings us closer to the Omega point.

Chardin’s phenomenology is radical because Creation is the beginning of phenomena, and the divine always operates in it, present in the actions and laws that govern organisms and living beings: God is at birth and in growth and at the end of all things, […] It does not mix or be confused with the participatory that sustains, animates and connects.” (Rideu, p. 271).

Thus, looking at the phenomena of the universe is looking at greatness and human development. It is not by chance that scientists look for comets, stars and stars from all over the cosmos for signs of life and the origin of life. Creator.


Zilles, U. (2001) Pierre Teilhard de Chardin: Fé e Ciência (Chardin: faith and science). EDIPUCRS,  pag. 59-60.


Rideau, E. (1965) O pensamento de Chardin (Teilhard de Chardin’s thought), Ed. Duas Cidades, 1965, p. 271.




The noosphere: from primary matter to complexification.

04 Mar

Teilhard Chardin thus describes the complexification from the first developments of life, the critical transition from the life of cells to an ultra-complex life:

“We will probably never find out (unless, luckily, the science of tomorrow manages to reproduce the phenomenon in the laboratory) – History alone, in any case, will never directly discover the material traces of this emergence – appearance – of microscopic out of the molecular; from the organic out of the chemical, from the living out of the pre-living. ” (Chardin, 1965, p. 63)


Although it may seem that nature would have done this preparation alone, it draws attention to the essential originality of the cell, producing something entirely new, and composing an organic multiplicity in a minimum space, although the process may have taken years, each cell has long been prepared to be something original.

It will be through discreet but decisive mutations that occurred for thousands and millions of years, that the complexity of cells and living beings began to be formed, making it possible to perceive “the irresistible developments that are hidden in the weakest slowness, the extreme agitation that is hidden under the resting veil, the entirely new that insinuates itself in the monotonous repetition of the same things ”(Chardin, 1965, p. 8).

It was through the complexification of life that the human emerged, in the beginning God made it from inorganic materials, metaphorically the Bible says about clay, but it is certain that the universe was born before.

So the world of physis (Chardin sees physics in the Greek sense of the word) would be linked to biology, and thinks:

“Could we hesitate for a moment to recognize the evident kinship that links, in its composition and aspects, the world of the proto-living to the world of physical chemistry? I mean, are we not yet, in this first stage of life, but at the core, at least on the very edge of ‘matter’? ” (Chardin, 1965, p. 66)

At the birth of human life, after billions of years after the formation of the universe, a great and decisive mutation will occur, the birth of thought and consciousness, and what Chardin calls interiorization, which in religious terms means the individual soul that is also linked to the collective, the principle of association from the first cells.

The thought and the conscience the notion of person develops, this experience was given thanks to the cerebral development of man, and to the developments of what Chardin calls the Noosphere, the last stage after the Biosphere, the creation and development of life.

Developing and explaining the Chardanian cosmogenesis is a long process that not even fully developed in life, many advances in current astrophysics (many discoveries try to explain the origin of life) help understanding, what is important to emphasize is that the evolution panorama cosmos, not just the Earth, is linked to the development of human consciousness and capacity to connect with the harmony of life.

Chardin, T. (1965). O fenomeno humano (Phenomenous Human). BR, São Paulo : Herder.