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Arquivo para a ‘Jornalismo’ Categoria

Power in Foucault and Chul-Han

16 Apr

Michel Foucault broke with the classical conceptions of the term power and defined it as a network of relationships where all individuals are involved, and we understand the network here with the modern sense of network, although it was vague in his time, individuals are both generators and recipients of power. movement of these relationships, however he identifies them as biopower, while Chul-Han identifies them as psychopower, and in a way adds the media to this.

State ideology, born from Hegel, is the basis of every history of contemporary power, authoritarianism and modern wars were born from a new idea of ​​imperialism and colonialism, in which stronger states control power not only through weapons, but rather through biopower and now psychopower.

Foucault’s biopower, the state is the first level of power (he calls it a sector), the market is the second level, and the third is civil society, the idea of ​​4th. The power of the press comes from there.

He studied power not to develop a theory about it, but to identify aspects of subjectivity (in ontology it would be the question of Being), that is, subject over other subjects.

This is important to differentiate him from Chul-Han, who starts from the ontological relationships between beings and identifies the action of media and media structures that act on the psychology of power, so his idea of ​​power (What is power) is like a domination technique that stabilizes and reproduces the dominated system through programming and psychological control.

Foucault sees biopower, as in the body as a training machine, since biopolitics, in the middle of the 18th century, was focused on regulatory controls on the population, the idea being that it was the population increase that caused misery and hunger.

Peter Sloterdijk, who supervised Chul-Han’s doctoral thesis on Heidegger, argues that this “training” process failed and thus, the control process develops towards the fourth power, which Chul-Han focuses excessively on the media, forgetting the 4th. power of the press, TV and cinema that had an enormous influence.

He develops pathologies of self-centeredness (narcissism), emotional instability (borderline) as responses to the demands of a society intoxicated with demands for efficiency, appearance and disciplinary coercion, wrote the author):

“The violence of decapitation is inherent to the pre-modern society of sovereignty; its medium is blood. Modern disciplinary society is, to a large extent, a society of negativity, being governed and dominated by disciplinary coercion, that is, by ‘social orthopedics’. Its form of violence is deformation. But neither decapitation nor deformation are capable of describing the postmodern performance society. It is dominated by a violence of positivity, which confuses freedom and coercion. Its pathological manifestation is depression” (Han 2018, pp. 183-184).

HAN, Byung-Chul. (2018) Psicopolítica: o neoliberalismo e as novas técnicas de poder. Brazil, Belo Horizonte: Âyiné.

 

2 years of war and diplomacy

26 Feb

February 24th marked 2 years of Russia’s war with Ukraine, which the Russian government calls a “special operation”, which has already killed thousands of civilians in Ukraine, which caused a rupture with the West and which has no prospect of a truce and can scale to Europe.

Despite the weakening, Zelensky’s speech promised victory, although he suffered setbacks at the beginning of the year on several fronts, Putin’s speech is increasingly fierce and eloquent and a direct confrontation with NATO forces, the which would be a tragedy for the entire planet due to the war and nuclear potential that would be involved.

In Palestine, Israel continues with bombings already reaching the border city with Egypt of Rafah, in the suburb of Shaboura, according to the Gaza Ministry of Health, 97 people were killed and there were also attacks in some neighboring villages.

Qatar will host a meeting between Hamas and Israel with the aim of finalizing a truce agreement this week, according to Egyptian sources, the United States always considers a definitive peace agreement possible, but continues to support Israel and continues conflicts with the Houthis of Yemen that prevents the passage of American-flagged cargo ships.

A new strategy in Yemen has been tactical forces, led by the United Kingdom (pictured), that assist in both mapping and bombing the Houthis’ land bases, as they have no vessels, carrying out attacks on ships from land bases.

Brazilian President Lula caused a serious crisis with Israel by comparing the current war in Israel with the Nazi period, precisely the biggest genocide and the most cruel war against the Jewish people and provoked reactions from the Netanyaho government, its allies and Jewish Brazilians who They demand equal treatment to that given to Palestinian refugees.

The series of wars and retaliations harden hearts and put into combat the forces that polarize power around the world. There are few countries that do not align themselves, although the hope of peace resists in a heroic way.

As the century-old educator and philosopher Edgar Morin says, it takes resistance of the spirit.

 

 

Perspective of war and intoxication of the spirit

19 Feb

The tone and actions of a non-stop war are expanding, there are few nations and voices that are not under what the century-old philosopher Edgar Morin calls “collective intoxication”, and calls for there to be resistance capable of reacting to all the lies spread .

The commander of NATO forces, Chris Cavoli, announced an army of 90 thousand men, and an exercise called Steadfast Defender 2024, which should take place in May, with 50 ships, from aircraft carriers to destroyers, 80 fighters, helicopters and drones participating. and more than 1,100 combat vehicles, including 133 tanks and 533 infantry vehicles.

Russia misleads and says it would not invade Latvia and Poland, it took the city of Avdviika (photo) once and for all, one of the strategic fronts and where the war is most violent, Zelensky minimizes the loss by stating that he retreated to “save lives”, however the war remains bloody.

In an interview this Sunday (18/02) Putin says that Ukraine “is a matter of life and death” for the country, the death of opponent Navalny had repercussions throughout the world and will be a watershed for those who clearly support a regime warlike and authoritarian.

In the Gaza strip, the city of Rafah with millions of Palestinian refugees remains under Israeli threat, a hospital was invaded because there was news that “hostages were there”, but they were not found, only weapons and with the invasion patients in the ICU died.

There are international calls for Israel not to put civilians at risk, the majority of whom are taking refuge in Rafah, and Egypt has built a huge wall so that they cannot flee to Egypt and this puts thousands of women, children and other civilians at risk. who are there and have nowhere to escape.

Negotiations become more difficult with each Israeli action and the involvement of Iran and other Arab countries becomes more inevitable every day, it will be on this front that a possible 3rd. war will occur, the resistance of the spirit claimed by the century-old philosopher and educator Edgar Morin must fight against fanaticism and hatred that only spread death and war.

In a previous interview published in the Italian newspaper La Reppublica, Morin had said: “all war embodies Manichaeism, unilateral propaganda, war hysteria, espionage, lies, the preparation of increasingly deadly weapons, errors and illusions, unexpected events and surprises”, it takes a resistance of the Spirit for Peace.

 

Hopes for peace

05 Feb

The Russian elections take place on March 15th and 17th, but Putin’s likely political opponent, former deputy Boris Nadejdin, had his candidacy rejected this Friday, February 2nd by the vice-president of the electoral commission Nikolai Bulaiev, who said reasons for irregularity and which will point out other technical problems.

This procedure is routine in Russian elections, and sometimes opponents disappear or are arrested for some reason or minor infraction, dictators control the state machine to forge a democracy that does not exist in practice and nationalist governments also grow.

One of the reasons is that some people on the list were considered dead, Nadejdin joked:

“You and I are the most alive of the living. If anyone imagines that they see dead souls on my subscription lists, that’s not a question for me, maybe they should look for the church, or an exorcist”, according to news on Telegram, a fair election could change the outlook for the war in Ukraine.

Peace in the Middle East is also possible, Israel wants the release of all hostages and Hamas wants an end to the war, reiterating this Saturday (03/02) that the complete withdrawal of Israeli forces from the Gaza Strip are prerequisites for hostage release agreement.

New attacks on Houthi targets in Yemen were carried out by the United States and the United Kingdom this weekend, and the organization, a group of multiple militias, is believed to be armed and financed by Iran, which denies the accusations.

According to the American Department of Defense, there are several militias financed by Iran, including Hezbollah and the Houthis, after two Americans were killed in the interception of a boat carrying weapons to rebels in Yemen, the American Department of Defense released a photo (above) .

There are always circumstances and situations that can end a war, it is necessary no limit condemning the power of tyrants and warmongering governments so that the world moves towards peace.

 

 

A new war front

15 Jan

The fear that the war between Hamas and Israel would set the Middle East region on fire is little by little confirmed and escalated, the bombings carried out by Western forces (USA, United Kingdom and Holland) in the Yemen region, where the extremist Houthi movement has its bases. The group is aligned with Iran, and the region is one of the poorest on the planet, and the Houthis maintain control over international flag ships that sail through the Red Sea, a strategic location for military forces in the region (see map).

In the distant past it became part of the Kingdom of Sheba, more than a thousand years ago, being mentioned even in Genesis, and also in the Quran, more recently because it had more rain than other regions of Arab countries, it had good agriculture, with coffee plantations.

This is where the type of Arabic coffee comes from, and it came to be called Happy Arabia along with Oman in the period when sedentary tribes developed an agricultural economy.

It came to be divided into North and South Yemen, a period in which one region became communist dominated, but was reunified again and during the Arab spring the country entered into great political and social instability, plunging into a bloody civil war, which according to UN data left 22 million people in a vulnerable situation.

The US and UK military incursions in the region increase tension with Arab countries and could provoke an even greater military escalation in the region. Another source of tension was the election in Taiwan of the Democratic Progressive Party (PDP) candidate, Lai Ching-te, 64 years old, he achieved 40.1% of the votes against Hou Yu-ih (Koumintang, KMT) with 33.5 % and Ko Wen-je (Taiwan People’s Party, PPT) with 26.5%, his election represents the approval of a nationalist policy contrary to China, Lai was vice-president of the current president.

The escalation of the war in Ukraine follows, where winter favors the “winter general”, due to the difficulty of moving and maintaining troops across Ukraine in cold regions, Russia has carried out intense bombings in several cities using the air force.

The crisis in Israel has completed 100 days since the October 7th attack by Hamas, and is now driven by attacks by Hezbollah that are supported by Iran, which has declared itself as having no role in the attacks that started the conflict.

The situation of belligerence across the planet is intensifying, the American elections will be held this year in November and the parties are already using war situations as a campaign.

 

 

 

The escalation of wars

08 Jan

Although it cannot yet be declared a world war, the interference of Russia and the United States in several wars on the planet is already open and declared, Ukraine, on strong air attacks in all regions, issued a warning this Monday about these attacks, in Palestine the news They say that over 70% of the territory is uninhabitable due to the war.

Tension continues in the East, the North Korean dictator considers himself at war with the United States and on Saturday (06/01) more than 60 artillery shots were observed on the border with South Korea, tension in the area is growing, and there are American ships nearby.

Kim Jon-Um’s motivation was the naval exercise near the Baengnyeongdo and Yeongpyong islands, a border region between the Koreas (map above) although North Korea’s response could be thought of as defensive, Kim’s declaration was of open war with the In the USA, the warmongering stance of conservative South Korean president Yoon Suk-yeol strains relations with North Korea, which calls him a “gangster”.

The United States does not rule out open intervention in Eastern Europe, China maintains reservations, but always declares that the island of Taiwan is a rebel province and considers it part of Chinese territory, it is a declaration that an inevitable American defense and probable Japan in the area would also mean China entering the war, this scenario is a third world war, and we are on a very fragile threshold of this possibility.

From an economic point of view, the road in the BRICS of countries such as Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Iran and Ethiopia is also a cause of tension, since the Arab countries ally themselves with the socialists.

There is no longer any way to ignore the level of global tension for 2024, although hope will always remain with those who sincerely desire peace, and do not use it as warlike rhetoric.

 

The mystery of black holes

04 Jan

The center of the Milky Way, the galaxy where our solar system inhabits, is formed by a disk with spiral arms and a dense, yellowish central region known as the “bulge” and there are around ten billion stars orbiting the colossal object that is its center called the supermassive black hole Sagittrius A*.

So, if in the past geocentrism (the Earth as the center) was a naive idea, now Heliocentrism (the sun as the center) is also a provincial and outdated idea, but what black holes are, it was not Einstein but Karl Schwarzschild who was the first to propose its existence.

Steven S. Gubser’s book “The Little Book of Black Holes”, deals in a simple way, as much as possible, explains Einstein’s special and general relativity and Schwarzschild’s equations that gave rise to the topic, black holes are one of the strong themes in current astronomy and one of the sources of research for the James Webb mega-telescope.

The book begins by recounting an experiment carried out on September 14, 2015, almost a hundred years after Einstein announced his theory of general relativity, two massive detectors, one in Louisiana and the other in Washington, were carrying out a gravitational wave experiment when they detected an audible signal, such as a serious knock and five months later they announced that they had detected two colliding black holes forming a larger one, the discovery was spectacular.

Both black holes and gravitational waves were predicted in Einstein’s Theory. In this theory, the black hole is a region of space-time (the notion of absolute time and space has already been overcome) where all nearby matter is attracted and is impossible to escape.

There is a popular saying that everything that goes up must come down, says the author, however the idea of ​​the Schwarzschild equations is that nothing can go up, only come down and in the case of black holes where does that which must come down go, that is, what happens to what is attracted to the black hole.

We know the story of the apple that would have inspired Newton’s law of universal gravitation, the author of the book then suggests an apple falling into a black hole.

An apple outside the black hole events everything is static, at the horizon of these events everything is dynamic, flowing towards an all-encompassing singularity (where space-time changes dynamically in an extraordinary way, there two dimensions compress and the third is stretched.

Stephen Hawking, famous for proposing Big Bang equations, speculated that black holes are not actually black, they have their color (in fact, outside our visual range of colors from violet to red) determined by temperature, energy and entropy of its surface (if we can call the two dimensions that, since it is space-time).

This simplified introduction is developed over seven chapters of the book, in astronomical details and their equations, which requires some more specific knowledge of physics.

 

Gubser, Steven S., Pretorius, F. 2021. The Little Book of Black Hole. US: Princeton Press, 2018.

 

 

From information to narration

02 Jan

The title is purposefully the opposite of the first chapter of Byung Chul Han’s book on the crisis of narration, although he quotes Walter Benjamin who cites the experience of narration in a period before the internet, but the Korean-German philosopher does not clearly see this previous crisis the internet, and thus he himself falls into what he condemns, the absence of analysis in time.

If it is true that the Internet and its tool for making information available to laypeople, which is the Web (born in the 90s, more than 20 years after the internet) not only created a profusion of means of disseminating information and its narratives, but also created the possibility of its profusion in audio and video, which gives rise to a new possibility of recorded narration for podcasts and videos.

Of course, this does not mean that that primitive narrative prior to writing and the press, typical of primary orality, has returned, it exists in original cultures and also in some Western cultures and beliefs, for example, among the Kurds there are the “çîrokbê” who, if it were Literally translated, it would be what we understand in Western culture as “history”.

Byung Chul Han’s sentence about the digital universe is clear: “Digitalization deobjectifies and disembodies the world. It also eliminates memories” (Han, 2022) this is partly true, but digital media itself, once recorded, becomes a thing, and once a narration is made, just for example, by Kurdish narrators, the information (in the sense of Chul Han) returns to narration, that is, the reverse process is possible.

Its error, from a philosophical point of view, is an old question about what things are (or what they are), the relationship between subject and object is the result of Western dualism since Parmenides, and only a non-dual vision can understand that the A thing is also not a thing in itself, once narrated.

Thus, information will always be paradoxical, it is narrated when it is and not narrated after it has become narrated-information and is subject to historical distance, but if seen from the point of view of quantum physics it is even more complex, because there are both things, from which the question arises from some physicists that time does not exist, difficult for today’s culture.

This question of time arose in 2012 in a TedTalk by the Italian Carlo Roveli: “Time Doesn’t Exist and I’ll Tell You That in 15 Minutes”, but has gained popularity now because the James Webb mega-telescope proposes several new paradigms when looking deeper into the universe, We are at the end of the Copernican era, the center of our galaxy is a black hole and they have already started to say what they are, dark matter and dark energy are also beginning to be revealed.

The theoretical physicist Michio Kaku gives the history of this idea, “In The God Equation” (ed. Record, 224 pp, trans.: Alexandre Cherman), and there he gives a written account of today’s physics.

Han, Byung-Chul (2022). Não-coisas : reviravoltas do mundo da vida / Byung-Chul Han ; tradução de Rafael Rodrigues Garcia. – Petrópolis, RJ : Vozes, Brazil.

 

2024: wrath or peace, hope

29 Dec

In 2023 we saw an escalation of wars: the war in Ukraine intensified, after a terrorist attack by Hamas in Israel, the war there broke out and intensified, the threat of a dispute between Guyana and Venezuela which is now returning to the issue of sending from an English warship to the area.

The climate is far from being seen with possibilities of peace, in Ukraine, Russia carried out intense attacks at the end of the year and Poland accuses that there were missiles from Russia that violated its airspace, Hezbollah began an escalation of attacks on Israel, and Venezuela says it will respond to the British warship with “defensive” military action.

As if that weren’t enough, the election now in January in Taiwan puts pressure on China since conservative parties are in the lead and the defense of the territory that China considers its province is one of the mottos for the election and the provocations in Taiwan’s territorial waters are frequent (photo).

There is always hope, there are many forces that seek to demonstrate the senselessness of wars, the deaths of innocent people, the immense damage to national economies, and the first thing that is lost in all wars: the truth about the real interests in conflicts , are never what they proclaim: interests in defending “the people” and the most fragile who are precisely the biggest victims.

In the midst of the great conflict, what can happen is what they try to hide: the great clearing of consciences, not only collective ones, but mainly individual ones, countries and economies in ruins, poverty everywhere and on an individual level, what we are and what that we do around our personal conscience in the face of serious situations around us.

Although my personal hope is small in relation to war, it is great in relation to the individual plan, in great conflicts and great scourges, great men and great leaders appear who march in the opposite direction to the powerful and arrogant.

Those who have experienced great scourges and conflicts are those who witness the horror of wars.

 

 

Dialogue perspective and Latin America

20 Nov

Some changes on the world stage give hope for peace, the 5-day truce and exchange of hostages in Palestine, Germany returns to dialogue with Russia and there is already popular pressure for peace in Europe, in Latin America tension between Venezuela and Goiânia and election of the ultra liberal Javier Milei in Argentina, by a greater margin than the polls showed.

What few or no analysts will say, because polarization goes from the periphery of countries to the most independent journalism, is that there is no single solution for either pole and there are errors in analysis and principles at both poles, polarization itself is already a nonsense.

The dialogue between Germany and Russia is certainly what draws the most attention, the last dialogue that was held between the two countries was on December 2, 2022, and this resumption could be a glimmer of hope for a turnaround in the escalation of war in Ukraine and Russia.

On the other hand, the world’s greatest hope at the moment is a possible peace agreement that could release some of the 240 people taken hostage in a Hamas attack on Israeli territory that killed around 1,200 Israelis, with signs of cruelty and barbarity, Israel also reacted with brutality and force and a large part of the civilian population of Palestine suffered.

Israel’s ambassador to the USA, Michael Herzog, was the one who announced on ABC television that there were “serious efforts” for a 5-day truce in exchange for the release of hostages, and the Qatari government is also working on a possible agreement.

The election of Milei, a 52-year-old candidate, took place by a margin that no survey indicated, he received 55.95% of the votes in the dispute against the government leader and Minister of Finance of the current government Sergio Massa with 44.04% of the votes, indicating that the Argentine people, although Milei is little known, bet on a very radical change, Argentina is in a deep economic crisis.

Several governments recognized Milei’s victory, but the ideological division is deep, and there is tension between Venezuela and Guyana (formerly English Guyana, with a rich history of indigenous peoples and internal struggles for emancipation) and although it is a region that has already been an issue in history, the reason for the dispute now is because oil was discovered in the Essequibo River region, which came to be called Guyana Essequiba, with a strong indigenous presence (figure).

After several agreements, in 1904, 19,630 km2 were handed over to the colony of England and 13,570 km2 were agreed with Brazil and to this day everything that establishes the limits between these three countries, there were several previous agreements, in 1966 Guyana became independent of the Kingdom United.