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Arquivo para a ‘Noosfera’ Categoria

The civilization crisis and the third excluded

25 Mar

The fact that we are stuck with dualism, now transformed into political polarization as if in nature and in society there were always only two poles in conflict without a third (or even fourth and fifth options) seems to make no sense with the logical paradox developed by Barsarab Nicolescu and find a parallel only in quantum physics (picture inside).

It is not true, Barsarab’s own text that calls for a Reform of Education and Thought (Barsarab, 1999) indicates that one can see in this change the center of a crisis greater than physical or logical issues, says Barsarab: “One thing it is certain: a great gap between the mentality of the actors and the internal development needs of a type of society invariably accompanies the fall of a civilization ”, or to put it another way, more ontological, between Being and Non-Being there is a Non-Being-being state that penetrates into dualisms and paradoxes.

Barsarab’s letter calling for an education reform, Edgar Morin also asks and others perceived a crisis in modernity as thought and education, the Third Included theorist T, gives a worrying sentence: “The risk is enormous, because the continuous expansion of Western civilization, on a world scale, would make the fall of that civilization equivalent to the fire of the entire planet, in no way comparable to the first two world wars ”.

There is also a linear and monodirectional thinking where the intention is always to polarize and create a “single” and monochromatic path, with the eternal danger of authoritarianism and deviations of power, in order to distend it would be necessary a more open world and where everyone is included. Education must walk and help this context, Barsarab says in his letter: “The harmony between mentalities and knowledge presupposes that such knowledge is intelligible, understandable. But can that understanding still exist, in the era of disciplinary big bang and extreme specialization? ”

The harsh reality of the pandemic shows that we oscillate between true solidarity and a relaxation to face the crisis, and the opportunistic polarization that wants to take advantage of the deaths and deviations from a poorly managed health crisis, in some more countries, but in almost all.

Barsarab’s sentence that seems harsh is not: “Is there anything between and across disciplines and beyond any and all disciplines? From the point of view of classical thought there is nothing, absolutely nothing.

The space in question is empty, completely empty, like the vacuum of “classical physics”, because it is in the void, in the epoché where a true philosophy can flourish, even when it is not (the suspension of judgment, the new horizons beyond the pre- concepts, etc.) is that it is .

 

 

The issue of Identity and its topicality

24 Mar

The question is so fundamental that it runs through philosophy since Parmênides, where “the same, because it is both to learn (to think) and also to be” (apud Heidegger) and for him to think and be are thought as the same, that is, identity is part of being, but this has a lot to do with the current moment.

When appealing to questions of identity we separate ourselves from people of different races, creeds or genders, we are trying to strengthen what is a false concept of identity because it both denies Being itself, and attempts to strengthen a certain group under an alleged identity and deny those that have little to do with belonging to that group or race.

This look at “different things” and recognizing some co-pertinence in them (belonging is just another way of giving identity to an isolated group or race), we must manifest differently what should be pointed out as sameness, that is, co-permanence groups with a diverse culture.

The logical sense of thinking about this identity is strong and has a presence in different cultures, both because the groups want to be strengthened through this “identity”, as well as following a binary and dualistic logic where A cannot be B, or they are the same and are the same, or they are different and contradictory, we have already pointed out in other texts the third included by Nicolescu Barsarab, in logic.

But in onto-logic Being is and can be non-Being, where there is a third term T that is both A and non-A, which even in physical reality has already been proven by quantum physics, the problem for dualistic philosophy is that this involves complexity.

There is a second way of seeing the question within the thinking (noein) where it is presented as Being, as was said at the beginning, in it two supposedly different things, they see each other as co-pertinence, which made some possible problematic interpretations in modernity.

Heidegger points to it, first quoting Parmenides and then developing “something absolutely different from what we ordinarily know as the doctrine of metaphysics, in which identity is part of being” (HEIDEGGER, 1973).

What Heidegger does is invert Hegel’s phrase: “identity is part of Being”, for “(…) the unity of identity is a fundamental feature of the being of the being. Everywhere, wherever we have a relationship with any type of being, we are challenged by identity.” (HEIDEGGER, 1973).

What Heidegger does is invert Hegel’s phrase: “identity is part of Being”, for “(…) the unity of identity is a fundamental feature of the being of the being. Everywhere, wherever we have a relationship with any type of being, we are challenged by identity.”(HEIDEGGER, 1973).

Going to the bottom of modern philosophy, where Hegel is a worthy representative, it can be said that there is a shift from Being (sein) to Being-there (Dasein) and perhaps the complexity will find there a point of support for those who want simplistic explanations. , it can be said that there is no displacement

However, it is more complex, as it involves existential aspects such as “worldliness”, “facticity” and “language”, without them we fall into simplistic explanations that only strengthen identity as a factor of difference and exclusion from the Other.

Heidegger, M. (1973) The principle of identity. In.Thinkers Brazilian Collection. Abril ed. Brazil, Rio de Janeiro. 

 

The proximity in Ricoeur and Pope Francis

23 Mar

Paul Ricoeur’s quote in the papal encyclical Fratelli Tutti is of a philosophical and theological dimension that few still understood, by separating partners from close ones, inspired by Ricoeur’s categories, the pope dialogues with contemporaneity both with philosophy and with theology and opens a new path for concrete fraternalism.

Although the tendency of Utopian content that the word Fraternity (the name of the encyclical is Fratelli, remember) takes on a new dimension when reading Socius et Prochain de Ricoeur.

It can be said that it develops a true culture of proximity, that is, it is not the friends of that group that I am connected with, of those who share a certain “identity”, the encyclical also clarifies these false concepts of identity that isolate us from others.

Ricoeur’s mention deserves note: “charity brings together the two dimensions – the mythical and the institutional – as it implies an effective way of transforming history that requires incorporating everything: institutions, law, technique, experience, professional contributions, analysis scientific, administrative procedures ”(FT §164), and thus incorporates human realities in the mythical.

It can be said that it is a realistic realism of a utopia of a better possible world, which cannot be reduced to an ineffective religious sentimentality that threatens certain conceptions that both mystique and good philosophy contemplate, going against the Other, proximity .

Another essential point of the encyclical is the misuse of the identity category, the Encyclical will say that “when they cling to an identity that separates them from others” and it is in Chapter III that speaks precisely of thinking

And the Encyclical alerts: “There are peripheries that are close to us, in the center of a city or in the family itself”. (FT §97), and again in Paul Ricoeur we find: “the neighbor is the very conduct of being present (…) the neighbor’s science is immediately blocked by a neighbor’s praxis: we do not have a neighbor; I am the next someone’s neighbor “(Ricoeur, 1968).

It is the misunderstanding of this category that leads bad philosophy to not understand what the other means and to give and this can be seen in the whole history of philosophy in the different conceptions of identity, the concept is in Stuart Hall and also Heidegger’s that identity is the degree of understanding that each one has of their own culture, but the topic is controversial and we will return to it.

Ricoeur, Paul “O socius e o próximo”, in História e Verdade, trad. F. A. Ribeiro (Companhia Editora Forense: Rio de Janeiro, 1968),

Pope Francis. (2020) Carta Encíclica Fratelli Tutti (FT), Vatican. Available in:

Fratelli tutti (3 October 2020) | Francis (vatican.va)

 

 

 

The grain of wheat dies to give life

19 Mar

Perhaps the deepest cosmic mystery is the death and appearance of stars, planets, comets and so many wandering stars in the Universe, and also in microscopic life it is like this, the virus needs a cell to live and there it can cause death or life, this is the cosmic-paschal mystery.

Chardin said about the Universe that on the Cosmos scale: “only the fantastic has the condition to be true”, the nebulae are stars with a simple composition of Helium and Hydrogen (they are the most common elements in the universe), when a gas contracts it heats up and the temperature depends on the density of the gas, the burning of Hydrogen will cause a nuclear fusion and a sun will appear, if it is not enough the so-called brown Dwarfs will appear, they are more planets than stars.

When the star gets colder and the density decreases by 8 times the mass of the sun, it becomes a White Dwarf, however as its nuclear fuel heats the temperature of its center, the stars expand to become the so-called Red Giants, between the white dwarfs and the Red Giants are planetary nebulae that are not really planets.

These are just one of the spectacular puzzles of the Cosmos, there are still neutron stars, black holes, asteroids and comets and now the newly discovered wandering planets that spin outside the circle of their main star and roam the immense universe.

And what to talk about the various theories about black holes, the most accepted theories is that what remains of the star’s death generates the neutron stars while if the mass is greater than 3 times the Sun generates a black hole, but there are other theories .

Death and life expressed in Christian cosmology may seem distant, but for Chardin it was not, since he defined the universe as “Christocentric”, that is, he all lives a paschal mystery.

So the biblical passage, especially in John 12: 22-33, has a text very close to these enigmas when Jesus says that the Son of Man will be glorified (it is interesting because the Son of God has the human dimension in the mouth of Jesus), and he says he is distressed, and that “what shall I say? ‘Dad, deliver me from this hour?’ But it was precisely this hour that I came. ”

And he says he came to glorify the Father, and this when he approaches his death on the cross, and he says when he is lifted up from the earth, I will draw everyone to me, indicating that the path of salvation exists, and the whole universe goes in this direction, thus man and ours. planet will also tend to this, as via Chardin.

In simpler words, Jesus explains: if the grain of wheat does not fall into the soil and die, it produces fruit.

 

 

Give a “soul” to the Earth

18 Mar

The idea of giving the man of our time a planetary citizenship, we live in a time of globalization or globalization, and this implies rights, it will only be sustainable if in return this path also points to an earthly “soul” where everyone sees themselves as codependents among themselves, the pandemic should have sparked this, but not yet.

Says Chardin in the book we are analyzing: “the man of our time will still go through a period of great illusion, imagining that, having reached a better knowledge of himself and the world, he no longer needs Religion” (Chardin, 1958) and this gets worse when we see the night of God hanging over humanity, confused between ideologies and fundamentalisms.

He saw the imperative that “from universal evolution God emerges in our consciences”, and he saw that it was necessary to overcome “religion understood as a simple appeasement of our difficulties, nothing ‘opium’. Its real function is to sustain and stimulate the progress of Life”and note that the systems proposed against it have not been able to prove effective in this direction.

He explains that the religious function is “born of ´hominization´, and linked to it can only be continually with the Man himself”, and he will ask: “Isn´t this what we can verify in our life? When, in the Noosphere, was there a more urgent need to seek, to find a Faith, a Hope to give meaning, a soul to the immense organism that we built?

It implied that this process of hominization, as the highlight of the complexification of the Cosmos, its “more advanced” form is “personalized”, and it raises a double necessary condition for the future: to super-animate the Person (anima-soul and animation has the same etymological origin), but without destroying it, and a universal convergence “must still (eminently) have the quality of a Person”, we purposely invert, due to current events.

Chardin imagined that the person would grow up with this “super-anima” (here in the sense of the animation) but we see that the Person was in the background, or as most current existentialists prefer, the Being and the Being-with-the-Other, that should have evolved along with the super-anima, but it didn’t.

In the 1937 Beijing writings, he speculates about this human energy that drives so many advances and this “being-more” force in a more primitive and more savage form: the War.

He believed that the time will come when “those who triumph over the mysteries of Matter and Life” as opposed to being used for war, armies and fleets, “doubling this other power that the machine will make free, and an irresistible tide of energies available will lead to the most progressive circles in the Noosphere”.

As a first conclusion, the texts will still go ahead, he says: “Love, like thought, is always in full growth in the Noosphere. The excess of their energies in relation to the increasingly restricted needs of human propagation is becoming more flagrant every day”.

Chardin, T. (1958) Construire la Terre. Paris: Editions du Soleil.

 

 

 

(Re) Building the Earth

17 Mar

Chardin’s text, dated at the medium of his life in the 30´s and compiled and published after 1958 (are several extracts), said only in Building the Earth, but there was still no strong environmental imbalance, the growth of atomic plants (nuclear energy was used in the war for bombs) and the danger of a global cataclysm, threats present today, in addition to social imbalance.

He already knew about the crisis of democracy and the growth of totalitarian systems (fascism and communism), defined his belief in the future in three ways: passion for the people, for the universal and for the future itself, and seeing the planet as an organism gave its sentence: “Each cell thinks, due to the fact that it is free, that it is authorized to erect a center for itself” (Chardin, 1958), however it verified the dispersion of this false intellectual and social liberalism.

See, however, the contradictions in dialogue, these forces do not have the “merely destructive power, each one of them contains positive factors… unless these components talk, each of them contains positive components… each of them is the world itself is the world itself that defends itself and wants to reach the light ”, of course it is necessary to avoid conflicts of wars and extremism.

In the sense it gives to the “spirit of the Earth”, it was written combining extracts from 1931, while traveling through the Pacific Ocean, defined this spirit as “the passionate sense of the common destiny that drags the thinking fraction of Life further and further away” , and it gives meaning to our conscience in growing circles of families, homelands, races, discover at last that the only true human unit, natural and real, is the Spirit of the Earth ”.

Edgar Morin in his book “Homeland” created a similar concept as planetary citizenship, but it is necessary to give a “common soul” to this idea of a planet as everyone’s home.

In Chardin’s cosmology, he works insistently on this theme in his Noosphere (this thinking layer that creates this spirit capable of involving everyone), he will say that “love is the most universal, the most formidable and the most mysterious of the cosmic energies”, today with so many poles and so many forces in conflict, it is necessary to rediscover this essential point of convergence.

On the path of unity, “to the wonders of a common soul”, he wrote “these brief and pale ones must make us understand that the formidable power of joy and action still lies within human unity”, to rediscover this value and this cosmic force, like the defines, it is our destiny.

To develop this thought in the rest of the book, he puts in the foreground: “to our concerns an organization and a systematic exploration of our universe understood as a true human homeland” and he will say in Beijing 1937 writing, what are the conditions of this human energy capable to direct “collective emotions” towards a common force, and capable of repelling the worst of the negative energies: war.

Chardin, T. (1958) Construire la Terre. Paris: Editions du Soleil.

 

 

 

Healing, the soul and the law

16 Mar

The pandemic follows an even more dangerous path, which is the production of new variants or new strains, all humanity wants a cure, even the so-called denialists, we all suffer and because the cure does not come, what is missing for science, or for understanding the virus that does not happen, in fact we have other diseases that are social comorbidities: hunger, misery, ignorance and intolerance that do not give respite too, and the disease of the soul that is not talked about.

Ah it was always like that, we have no other solution, we talked in the previous post about the next pandemic, if we do not cure ourselves, of course, there is a different and emblematic case.

In 1977, Ali Maow Maalin, who was a hospital cook in Somalia, caught smallpox, he didn’t know, but he was the last person in the world to naturally contract the disease, she infected 1 billion people and killed 300 million in the 20th century, when he was cured he went down in history, smallpox was considered eradicated, two things were needed: the vaccine and managing the disease.

Management must be global and WHO must play an essential role in this struggle, identify outbreaks and act quickly and firmly to prevent infectious diseases from spreading.

The disease that prevents this is the disease of the soul, we are almost always in radicalization poles and we do not allow a fraternal and general advance of all countries and in all countries by WHO, this problem of the human “soul” will not be solved only by law, politics and repression, it is necessary to educate.

Religions could play an essential role in this, created to make the human family the daughter of one Father and thus all his children, limited as we are in the face of sanitary and social diseases, cannot be fulfilled because the human soul remains ill, and only “law ”does not solve the need to change the mentality, only radicalization will produce more dictatorships and less fraternity.

n the Bible passage that Jesus heals a paralytic, and he goes out taking the bed, the Jews say that it was not allowed to carry the bed on the Sabbath (John 5: 10-13) and Jesus had already forgiven his sins, that is, healed his soul, and we remain sick with sin and new mentality.

Teilhard Chardin wrote “Construire la terre” (Ed. Soleil, 1958) where he speaks of the “common soul”, we will return to the theme.

 

 

Chardin’s clearing

12 Mar

The word is in Heidegger’s philosophy, but studying German etymology we come to the word Lichtung, where the meaning is of a clearing in the forest, while Licht is the word for light, that is, to remove hidden things and unveil them so that the truth come up.

In Chardin it means looking at the Cosmos in its complexity and acquiring awareness of an immense and infinite universe in which Alpha (origin) and Omega (end) are present, but with the meaning of giving the complexity-consciousness the necessary light to understand the life process.

It starts with the Human Phenomenon and will be clearer in your book “The divine environment” where he talks about the inner life, not in the intimate sense, but in the sense of reconnecting it to God and to others.

Explaining better by reading Chardin: “In their effort towards mystical life, men often gave in to the illusion of brutally opposing spirit and flesh, body and soul, as if it were good and evil. from certain current expressions, this Manichaean tendency was never approved by the church… “(p. 117), but it is resistant and is always present in everyday religious discourse,. the purely economic and political views of religion led to this state.

For this reason Chardin will insist on an “interior” life, one capable of achieving divine designs within human realities, hence “the divine environment”.

But what is the divine means, is that permanent tension: “slowly accumulated between Humanity and God will reach the limits fixed by the possibilities of the World, and then it will be the end” (p. 177), we must hope not as a catastrophe or a great sign, but an ´outgoing´ for the world that is heading for a civilizational crisis, and to which we must collaborate that it passes, with all our Christian forces, of other religions or of “good faith”, without fear of the world,

The light came into the world, says the evangelist João (1,20-21), but those who do evil reject it, “But those who act according to the truth, approach the light, so that their actions are carried out. in God ”, and thus carry out our actions within the“ divine environment ”where everything is connected to the Cosmos.

CHARDIN, Teilhard. O meio divino: ensaio sobre a vida interior. Lisboa: Editorial Presença, s/d.

 

 

 

The human future and unity

11 Mar

Several points of Teilhard Chardin’s thought coincide with the new theological currents that arise in the religious milieu, especially in the Catholic, but Chardin opened his spirit even more when he practically migrated to China, the environment and Eastern philosophy influenced him.

His originality is as much in the evolutionary synthesis of his vision, as in several aspects of a futuristic eschatology that covers the entire Cosmos and whose convergence he calls “Omega”, which is an individualized but not isolated force, different from authors who stop at criticism to the problem of contemporary individualism without understanding that individuation tends to this “Omega point” futuristic, evolution chases.

Some authors understand the Cristosphere as a recapitulation of everything, say some theologians, but the evolutionary process culminates like man, but it does not end with man, the universe, man and woman, the historical trajectory, everything responds to a path for the Parusia of the Lord, and it is inevitable and the highlight of a Christian eschatology, and to deny the end of everything is to deny the eschatological process or at least not fully understand it.

So says U. Zilles about Chardin: “It is the risen Christ, who incorporates the world and humanity into the Mystical Body, in the finish of the Total Christ”, so this means that the Earth and the Universe will be prepared for the Parusia of the Lord (or the return of Christ), in full eschatology.

As a force of individualized action Omega is not subject to time and space (current physics has already shown these concepts as not absolute), so properties such as autonomy, actuality, irreversibility and transcendence are not subject to temporal actions, but to Omega.

Chardin explains that the multiple ecological, physiological, psychological factors that bring living beings together, especially human beings, and that especially environmental, physical and spiritual conditions are extension and expression, at a level of complexity-consciousness energies that they can bring Omega closer together.

Let it be said in passing that everything is in the various passages of Jesus (approaching the humble, dialogue with public sinners and finally handing over to the hands of the bad religious and politicians of his time), what Chardin wants to say is even further, that if we understand complexity-awareness, we help humanity to make a leap in quality that brings us closer to the Omega point.

Chardin’s phenomenology is radical because Creation is the beginning of phenomena, and the divine always operates in it, present in the actions and laws that govern organisms and living beings: God is at birth and in growth and at the end of all things, […] It does not mix or be confused with the participatory that sustains, animates and connects.” (Rideu, p. 271).

Thus, looking at the phenomena of the universe is looking at greatness and human development. It is not by chance that scientists look for comets, stars and stars from all over the cosmos for signs of life and the origin of life. Creator.

 

Zilles, U. (2001) Pierre Teilhard de Chardin: Fé e Ciência (Chardin: faith and science). EDIPUCRS,  pag. 59-60.

 

Rideau, E. (1965) O pensamento de Chardin (Teilhard de Chardin’s thought), Ed. Duas Cidades, 1965, p. 271.

 

 

 

Deepening Chardin’s Spirituality

10 Mar

In all of his writings and works, Chardin develops two laws that are perfectly dialogeable and connected to the recent advances in the different sciences and the process he calls “hominization”, that is, to give the world an increasingly human and more loving face.

So he does not look at human progress with disdain or with the commonplace of criticizing any modern advance, for him the evolutionary movement follows an increasing complexity, from simple to complex, from atoms and molecules, passing through cells the formation of a range of beings living with a clear and successive complexification, but another law should accompany it.

The law of interiorization or complexification, so consciousness must be integrated into the increasingly deeper process of complexifying the life of living beings, and this requires a process of interiorization, it must correspond to each specific moment of complexification.

Explaining in simpler words, if we use advanced techniques and knowledge, it is necessary that consciousness accompanies each step of evolution, criticizing it or creating repulsion for what is complex is to walk the path of denial of evolution and thus not having the proper every historic step, in terms of cultural and even civilizational crisis, the step needs to be a leap.

His reading of the complexification process does not ignore the development of the “person”, or what in philosophy is called “ipseidade” or singularity, but refers to itself and contemporary philosophy contemplates this when reflecting on the Other, which has existed since philosophical reflections like a “go beyond” by Gabriel Marcel or Paul Ricoeur, until Papal Encyclicals, the recent Fratelli Tutti quotes these authors as well as Gaudium et Spes states that fullness cannot be found “except in the sincere gift of oneself ”.

Chardin speaks of the personalization of the universe (in the sense of the presence of the person), with the evolution of living beings until the arrival of the human, it must bring to light what each has in itself an unrepeatable: its uniqueness, which in philosophy is “ipseidade” or singularity, but launched beyond itself: “What we have of ourselves,“ the height of our originality, is not our individuality, it is our person [the being for some philosophers]; and this, due to the evolutionary structure of the world, we can only find it by joining together ”(Chardin, 1965, p. 289), the brackets are our inclusions.

To understand this meaning for Chardin is to penetrate his deep philosophy united to others, to the cosmos and to the Absolute Being, beginning and end of the universe and of life: “The cosmic process of personalization aims to realize personalization, the existence of more and more people people, until they integrate, without ceasing to be people, in the last communion with the absolute Person ”(Chardin, 1965, p. 266), who is God.

CHARDIN, T. (1965) O fenômeno humano [1956]. Brazil, São Paulo: Herder.