Arquivo para a ‘Computer Science’ Categoria

Artificial intelligence and its ethical limits

24 Jan

In a society in which all ethical limits have already been exceeded, even that of no longer preying on our fundamental good for life, the evolution of Artificial Intelligence, even with countless ethical agreements in which large companies have participated (Amazon, HP, IBM, Google , etc.), for example, in order not to produce smart weapons, we have seen the indiscriminate use of drones in the Ukraine-Russia war, in which the powers and their companies are involved.

The evolution of AI took a leap with the internet, the ease of information that runs through the veins of electronic networks (these are networks) and encourages electronic media (which are only means available to men) is as abundant as it is impactful, overnight for the day, illustrious strangers become influencers and gain notoriety, among them fortune tellers, prophets, politicians and artists not always with a lot of morals and ethics.

This should be as or more worrying than the development of AI (artificial intelligence), but the use of “media” by these influencers is indeed very worrying, and it is not just about fake news, but all kinds of barbarism ranging from from vocabulary to political impact, this is where our readings of Dalrymple and Zizek from previous weeks are inserted, more linked to cultural and political aspects, which are undoubtedly more delicate.

As the subject is also delicate, now in the intellectual sense of knowing its potentialities and dangers not yet clearly analyzed, such as, for example, the use of genetic algorithms (GA) pointed out by Margaret A. Boden, in her book “artificial intelligence: a very brief introduction ” (Editora Unesp, 2020).

It explores, among many other things, with the clarity of an expert in the field, the problem of cyborgs and transhumans, as suggested by Kurzweil, who was preparing his own body to become a transhuman.

Unlike cyborgs, the medical implants of various prostheses are already clearly possible, for the transhuman, “instead of considering prostheses as useful accessories for the human body, they will be considered as parts of the (trans-)human body” (Boden, 2020, p. 206), where human strength and beauty could go beyond genetic limits and this would become “natural” characteristics.

Just like Jean Gabriel Ganascia (the Frenchman who wrote The Myth of Singularity), Margaret Boden also does not believe in the overtaking of the machine above human intelligence, this is the point of singularity, and so also the “transcendent” human consciousness, as we discussed, is not subjected to an “intuitive implausibility” of post-singularity (p. 207).

Undoubtedly, the machine will be able to perform incredible tasks and at a speed never dreamed of by man, in fact it already does, but “transcendence” is not this.


BODEN, Margaret A. (2020) Inteligência Artificial: uma brevíssima introdução (Artificial Intelligence: a very brief introduction). Brazil, SP: Ed. UNESP.



Ukrainian War and Pandemic´s Brazil

12 Dec


The war in Ukraine continues in increasingly dramatic situations due to the cold and the Russian strategy of undermining the country’s energy sources, which is a war crime since it hits the entire civilian population and not just the military. , while Ukraine looks to attack military bases now on Russian soil via suicide drones.

The bases attacked were in Engels, in the province of Saratov and Diaguilevo, near Ryazan, only 240 km from Moscow, showing that it has weapons to reach targets on Russian soil.

Russia has an attack in Crimea, while it intensifies defense in the strategic region of Dombass, territory claimed by the Tusso government, the bases for negotiation practically do not exist, since this region is disputed by two countries and there is no possible agreement in this regard.

Russia reiterates that it will not be the first to use chemical weapons, and that it knows the risk of this use, a war of unstoppable humanitarian populations, but both sides have weapons for this, and the very bases that are attacked by Ukraine aim to destroy possible bases of these weapons.

In the middle of winter the martyrdom of the Ukrainian people continues and the calls for peace go unheeded.

Covid 19, although whiter, continues with worrying rates, since it shows no signs of a truce, in Brazil the number of deaths and the moving average of known cases continues to grow slowly.

In the country there seems to be a paralysis of strategy, recommendations for preventive measures and incentives for vaccination, but without responses from society as a whole, or from effective control policies.



Web Summit in Lisbon

08 Nov

One of the biggest events of the Web was this week, it was a side event, I could only follow videos and news, undoubtedly the biggest star was the founder of the Web Tim-Berners Lee who already has a great new project, although he has spoken between the lines.

He started an interview, which in fact he spoke at will without many questions saying the beginning of the Web and how his growth was also surprising for him, he told technical details like “I wrote the code of the first server and the code of the first browser, it was called “and was on

He then said that his concern is the same as everyone, after 25 years we should deal with: cyberbullying, misinformation, hate speech, privacy issues and said what many are talking about, “What the hell could go wrong?” to the public: “in the first 15 years … great things have happened. We had Wikipedia, the Khan Academy, blogs, we had cats, “he said jokingly, adding:” Connected Humanity should be more constructive, more peaceful, than Humanity disconnected”, but jnt (just not).

“Because we are almost at the point where half of the world will be online”, explained the British engineer was referring to the ’50 / 50′ moment, that is half the connected humanity expected in 50 years, but it should reach this point in May 2019.

After trying to argue the responsibilities of governments and companies, I believe they can happen but they will be slow, he spoke indirectly of his SOLID (Social Linked Data) project, stating that “as individuals we have to hold corporations and governments accountable for what is happening on the internet ” and “the idea is, from now on, everyone is responsible for making the Web a better place, “said encouraging start-ups too to get into this process.

Thinking about the development of interfaces where users know people from different cultures, but above all ensure the universality of the Web, according to Berners-Lee the main aspect should be (speaking indirectly again of SOLID) that the popular intervention at global level and that made the Web “just a platform, without attitude, that should be independent, can be used for any kind of information, any culture, any language, any hardware, software”, linked data may help this.

 Tim Berners-Lee presented the #ForTheWeb movement on the same day that his World Wide Web Foundation released the report “The Case for the Web”, the event had a superaudience, more than 30 thousand people, there are several videos, but the Opening Ceremony is one of the most outstanding and has Tim-Berners Lee as well, see on vídeo:


Consciousness between epistemology and method

13 Jan

It is common sense that what we call interpretation is intimately bound up with theMetodo method and worldview that we have, but in practice we stay in the “it’s my opinion.”
Gadamer goes deeper into this theme by saying that “what modern consciousness assumes precisely as ‘historical consciousness’ – a reflective position in relation to all that is transmitted by tradition.” (page 18), that is, “historical no longer beatifically hears the voice that comes to him from the past, but when he reflects on it, he re-places it in the context in which it originated, in order to see the relative meaning and value that are proper to it “(idem) .
And this sentence of interpretation “goes back to Nietzsche, according to which all statements derived from reason” are susceptible of interpretation “(p. 21).
However, he returns to Hegel to clarify that “the human sciences possess with the natural sciences, a link that distinguishes them precisely from an idealistic philosophy: the human sciences also pretend to constitute themselves as legitimate empirical sciences, free from all metaphysical intrusion, and They reject all philosophical construction of universal history (idem), and here we enter into the question of method.
The idea of adopting scientific methods of the natural sciences prevented the human sciences from taking a “radical consciousness of themselves” (idem), and asks at the end of the paragraph: “Why not rather the old Greek concept, Of method should prevail ? “(Page 21)
Aristotle uses this to explain the question of method: “The idea of a single method, which can be determined even before investigating the thing, constitutes a dangerous abstraction, it is the very object that must determine the proper method to investigate it”
The Brazilian translation has 71 pages, is easy and simple to read, and I consider it useful for an introduction to Gadamer’s masterpiece “Truth and Method”.

Hans-Georg Gadamer, “The Problem of Historical Consciousness,” in “H.-G. Gadamer,” special issue, Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 5:1, 1975, page number is brazilian edition
Consciência entre a epistemologia e o método
Sabe-se no senso comum que o que chamamos de interpretação está intimamente ligado ao método e visão de mundo que temos, mas na prática, ficamos no “é minha opinião”.
Gadamer vai mais fundo neste tema, ao colocar que “aquilo que a consciência moderna assume precisamente como ‘consciência histórica´- uma posição reflexiva com relação a tudo que é transmitido pela tradição.” (pag. 18), ou seja, “a consciência histórica já não escuta beatificamente a voz que lhe chega do passado, mas, ao refletir sobre a mesma, recoloca-a no contexto em que ela se originou, a fim de ver o significado e o valor relativos que lhe são próprios” (idem).
E sentencia: “esse comportamento reflexivo diante da tradição chama-se interpretação” (pag. 19), e explica que essa noção de interpretação“ remonta a Nietzsche, segundo o qual todos os enunciados provenientes da razão“ são suscetíveis de interpretação” (pag. 21).
Entretanto retorna a Hegel para esclarecer que “as ciências humanas possuem com as ciências da natureza, vinculo que as distingue precisamente de uma filosofia idealista: as ciências humanas possuem igualmente a pretensão de se constituir como legítimas ciências empíricas, livres de toda intrusão metafísica, e recusam toda construção filosófica da história universal (idem), e aqui entramos na questão do método.
A ideia de adotar métodos científicos das ciências da natureza, impediram que as ciências humanas tivessem procedessem a uma tomada de “consciência radical acerca de si mesmas” (idem), e pergunta ao final do parágrafo: “Porque não antes o conceito antigo, grego, de método deveria prevalecer?” (pag. 21)
Utiliza Aristóteles para explicar a questão de método: “a ideia de um método único, que se possa determinar antes mesmo de investigar a coisa, constitui uma perigosa abstração, é o próprio objeto que deve determinar o método apropriado para investiga-lo” (idem).
A tradução brasileira tem 71 páginas, é de leitura fácil e simples, e considero útil para uma introdução na obra prima de Gadamer “Verdade e Método”.
GADAMER, H.G. O problema da consciência histórica, 3ª. Edição. Rio de Janeiro: FGV, 2006.