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Arquivo para a ‘Astronomia’ Categoria

The grain of wheat dies to give life

19 Mar

Perhaps the deepest cosmic mystery is the death and appearance of stars, planets, comets and so many wandering stars in the Universe, and also in microscopic life it is like this, the virus needs a cell to live and there it can cause death or life, this is the cosmic-paschal mystery.

Chardin said about the Universe that on the Cosmos scale: “only the fantastic has the condition to be true”, the nebulae are stars with a simple composition of Helium and Hydrogen (they are the most common elements in the universe), when a gas contracts it heats up and the temperature depends on the density of the gas, the burning of Hydrogen will cause a nuclear fusion and a sun will appear, if it is not enough the so-called brown Dwarfs will appear, they are more planets than stars.

When the star gets colder and the density decreases by 8 times the mass of the sun, it becomes a White Dwarf, however as its nuclear fuel heats the temperature of its center, the stars expand to become the so-called Red Giants, between the white dwarfs and the Red Giants are planetary nebulae that are not really planets.

These are just one of the spectacular puzzles of the Cosmos, there are still neutron stars, black holes, asteroids and comets and now the newly discovered wandering planets that spin outside the circle of their main star and roam the immense universe.

And what to talk about the various theories about black holes, the most accepted theories is that what remains of the star’s death generates the neutron stars while if the mass is greater than 3 times the Sun generates a black hole, but there are other theories .

Death and life expressed in Christian cosmology may seem distant, but for Chardin it was not, since he defined the universe as “Christocentric”, that is, he all lives a paschal mystery.

So the biblical passage, especially in John 12: 22-33, has a text very close to these enigmas when Jesus says that the Son of Man will be glorified (it is interesting because the Son of God has the human dimension in the mouth of Jesus), and he says he is distressed, and that “what shall I say? ‘Dad, deliver me from this hour?’ But it was precisely this hour that I came. ”

And he says he came to glorify the Father, and this when he approaches his death on the cross, and he says when he is lifted up from the earth, I will draw everyone to me, indicating that the path of salvation exists, and the whole universe goes in this direction, thus man and ours. planet will also tend to this, as via Chardin.

In simpler words, Jesus explains: if the grain of wheat does not fall into the soil and die, it produces fruit.

 

 

The human future and unity

11 Mar

Several points of Teilhard Chardin’s thought coincide with the new theological currents that arise in the religious milieu, especially in the Catholic, but Chardin opened his spirit even more when he practically migrated to China, the environment and Eastern philosophy influenced him.

His originality is as much in the evolutionary synthesis of his vision, as in several aspects of a futuristic eschatology that covers the entire Cosmos and whose convergence he calls “Omega”, which is an individualized but not isolated force, different from authors who stop at criticism to the problem of contemporary individualism without understanding that individuation tends to this “Omega point” futuristic, evolution chases.

Some authors understand the Cristosphere as a recapitulation of everything, say some theologians, but the evolutionary process culminates like man, but it does not end with man, the universe, man and woman, the historical trajectory, everything responds to a path for the Parusia of the Lord, and it is inevitable and the highlight of a Christian eschatology, and to deny the end of everything is to deny the eschatological process or at least not fully understand it.

So says U. Zilles about Chardin: “It is the risen Christ, who incorporates the world and humanity into the Mystical Body, in the finish of the Total Christ”, so this means that the Earth and the Universe will be prepared for the Parusia of the Lord (or the return of Christ), in full eschatology.

As a force of individualized action Omega is not subject to time and space (current physics has already shown these concepts as not absolute), so properties such as autonomy, actuality, irreversibility and transcendence are not subject to temporal actions, but to Omega.

Chardin explains that the multiple ecological, physiological, psychological factors that bring living beings together, especially human beings, and that especially environmental, physical and spiritual conditions are extension and expression, at a level of complexity-consciousness energies that they can bring Omega closer together.

Let it be said in passing that everything is in the various passages of Jesus (approaching the humble, dialogue with public sinners and finally handing over to the hands of the bad religious and politicians of his time), what Chardin wants to say is even further, that if we understand complexity-awareness, we help humanity to make a leap in quality that brings us closer to the Omega point.

Chardin’s phenomenology is radical because Creation is the beginning of phenomena, and the divine always operates in it, present in the actions and laws that govern organisms and living beings: God is at birth and in growth and at the end of all things, […] It does not mix or be confused with the participatory that sustains, animates and connects.” (Rideu, p. 271).

Thus, looking at the phenomena of the universe is looking at greatness and human development. It is not by chance that scientists look for comets, stars and stars from all over the cosmos for signs of life and the origin of life. Creator.

 

Zilles, U. (2001) Pierre Teilhard de Chardin: Fé e Ciência (Chardin: faith and science). EDIPUCRS,  pag. 59-60.

 

Rideau, E. (1965) O pensamento de Chardin (Teilhard de Chardin’s thought), Ed. Duas Cidades, 1965, p. 271.

 

 

 

The noosphere: from primary matter to complexification.

04 Mar

Teilhard Chardin thus describes the complexification from the first developments of life, the critical transition from the life of cells to an ultra-complex life:

“We will probably never find out (unless, luckily, the science of tomorrow manages to reproduce the phenomenon in the laboratory) – History alone, in any case, will never directly discover the material traces of this emergence – appearance – of microscopic out of the molecular; from the organic out of the chemical, from the living out of the pre-living. ” (Chardin, 1965, p. 63)

 

Although it may seem that nature would have done this preparation alone, it draws attention to the essential originality of the cell, producing something entirely new, and composing an organic multiplicity in a minimum space, although the process may have taken years, each cell has long been prepared to be something original.

It will be through discreet but decisive mutations that occurred for thousands and millions of years, that the complexity of cells and living beings began to be formed, making it possible to perceive “the irresistible developments that are hidden in the weakest slowness, the extreme agitation that is hidden under the resting veil, the entirely new that insinuates itself in the monotonous repetition of the same things ”(Chardin, 1965, p. 8).

It was through the complexification of life that the human emerged, in the beginning God made it from inorganic materials, metaphorically the Bible says about clay, but it is certain that the universe was born before.

So the world of physis (Chardin sees physics in the Greek sense of the word) would be linked to biology, and thinks:

“Could we hesitate for a moment to recognize the evident kinship that links, in its composition and aspects, the world of the proto-living to the world of physical chemistry? I mean, are we not yet, in this first stage of life, but at the core, at least on the very edge of ‘matter’? ” (Chardin, 1965, p. 66)

At the birth of human life, after billions of years after the formation of the universe, a great and decisive mutation will occur, the birth of thought and consciousness, and what Chardin calls interiorization, which in religious terms means the individual soul that is also linked to the collective, the principle of association from the first cells.

The thought and the conscience the notion of person develops, this experience was given thanks to the cerebral development of man, and to the developments of what Chardin calls the Noosphere, the last stage after the Biosphere, the creation and development of life.

Developing and explaining the Chardanian cosmogenesis is a long process that not even fully developed in life, many advances in current astrophysics (many discoveries try to explain the origin of life) help understanding, what is important to emphasize is that the evolution panorama cosmos, not just the Earth, is linked to the development of human consciousness and capacity to connect with the harmony of life.

Chardin, T. (1965). O fenomeno humano (Phenomenous Human). BR, São Paulo : Herder.

 

Time of change in the cosmic sphere

02 Mar

A time of real change is always a time when nature and life itself are transformed creating a deeper cosmogenesis that also develops in consciousness, we have already reached Mars with our apparatuses and we are approaching Venus in the cosmos, in earthly life already we know how the dinosaurs became extinct and in fact it was a meteor, studies of the cosmos are advancing.

This is because life is linked to consciousness, and in phenomenology it is always awareness of something, but it is not separate from the metaphysics in which the very conception of Being, Nature and Cosmos evolve, also in the spiritual aspect.

One of the theologians who never separated spiritual evolution from the evolution of the “species” was Teilhard Chardin (here we use an Aristotelian-Darwinian term not to confuse, but to explain), for him, however, following the path of Patrística (the wise saints at the beginning church) and Scholastics (Tomás de Aquino, Santo Anselmo and now the recovered and saint Duns Scotus), what happens is the complexification of Nature in its hominization (The Human Phenomenon).

Here we begin the explanation of what we call an aortic mutation, which can happen on a new scale at this present moment, not because of the virus but because of the universe but of Nature (capitalized here to make it also sacred), affirms Chardin in the nascent young land : “In the most solid rocks, it is possible to distinguish, in vague symmetry with the metamorphosis of living beings, a perpetual transformation of mineral species” (Chardin, 1965, p. 51), this at first led him to be condemned as “ pantheistic ”, but a more attentive reading, he explains the process.

The pre-life was immersed (we could say already in a germ) in the atom, but where there is already life, we find a spectrum of chemical elements in which its elements are differentiated (the chemical term for this is polymerization, formation of macromolecules by the union from the simpler ones), this pre-life “over the abyss of the past, let’s observe its color, which is changing. From age to age, the tone revives. Something will break out on Earth, no longer nascent, but youthful: life! This is Life! ” (Chardin, 1965, p. 58), the Earth would have remained quite cold so that the chains of carbonaceous molecules (organic molecule) could form and survive on its surface.

The Earth was then watery and tiny beings begin to form here and there, and an amazing mass of organized matter appears the last (or rather the penultimate) layer in the order of time, of the envelopes of our planet: the Biosphere (Chardin , 1965, p. 63).]

This evolution from the inorganic to the organic is the mutation called Aorganic, and it will continue, one day it will be able to change the face of the planet and this is part of human evolution as well.

The dangers of change exist, not only because of a virus that forces human nature to adapt, but an asteroid (the cause pointed out by the extinction of the dinosaurs) can reach us, the dreaded asteroid Apophis (photo), formed by a gigantic rock exists and is being observed by astronomers, its dreaded approach will be in 2029, of course it is not expected to reach us.

Chardin, T. (1965). O fenômeno humano. BR, São Paulo : Herder. (Human Phenomenon)

 

 

Simplification, idealism and pandemic

28 Apr

The idea that we can simplify phenomena that are complex seems a good way, but to simplify what is by nature complex is to ignore the set of phenomena and interpretations that are within the phenomenon you want to analyze, whatever the nature.
It is very different from the search for essence, the pre-Socratics sought to define what was the essential element of nature: fire, air, atoms, numbers, the Being, and thus defined the main pre-Socratic schools, when realizing that it was a broader phenomenon Socrates, which is read by Plato divides into two worlds: the world of Ideas and the sensitive world, however any attentive reader will not say that his school has simplified, it only paved the way for greater complexity.
The eidos of Plato and the pre-Socratic Parmenides is different from modern idealism, because in it there is so much the concept of form, for example, a chair whatever form it has its Being as being made to sit.
The Greek eidos from which the etymology of the word idea comes, has two accepted meanings, one that is a synonym for concept, but in a broader sense it is thought of as an expression, with the implicit principle of the idea of intentionality (*), and this concept it was only taken up in modern philosophy by Franz Brentano and later in Husserl’s phenomenology, who was his student.
Modern idealism, whose fundamental basis is Kant, although it has a common part to the Greek eidos, which is the idea that when studying the thing we have a projection of knowledge on it, reducing the idea that this study would be what characterizes the object of study (objectivity), and thus introduces a specific type of subjectivity, abstracting it from Being, this abstraction has in Hegel the apex.
Kant came to think that it would be possible to reduce all thought to a few concepts, it would be a great facilitator for study and thought, but his thinking resulted in an even greater complexity, and his simplicity fell into the subject x object dualism, which we suffer.
Every simplification leads to some kind of subjectivism or objectivism, even in religious terms, when studying The Human Phenomenon, Teilhard Chardin declared that Man is the complexification of nature, difficult for theologians and exegetes to accept, but I ask you the question: why did Jesus use of parables to explain things that apparently could be simple¬, because it isn’t.
Idealism is basically a “doctrine” that contains the belief that it is thought and not the physical world that is at the origin of all things, that is, the objective world, which we discover with the pandemic, and physics quantum already knew and actual cosmology is deepening, is that uncertainty is part of knowledge, and we are faced every day with a new phenomenon.
After all, one of the assumptions of Kantian idealism was the submission of nature, she rebelled.
This is the original novelty that idealists do not accept, and this novelty should give us back the humility, proclaimed by all, but as idealism gets stuck in duality, the error is the others, we knew the truth, not even science, nor faith could imagine the complexity of the phenomenon that all humanity lives, the first step to face the pandemic is this: I depend on the step of the Other, and that we can take steps together, it still seems difficult.

*Encyclopædia Britannica, Available in: https://www.britannica.com/topic/idea , Access in: 04/26/2020.

 

The divine environment and the human phenomenon

09 Apr

Chardin’s worldview on the human phenomenon ranges from cosmogenesis, the origin of the universe and of life to the complexification of nature and the place of man in it, what the pandemic shows is that this complexification grows and even science has limits to deal with it, however, this pandemic can bring new horizons, when it passes and of course it needs science.
Among his various works, Teilhard Chardin makes a singular journey between The divine environment, written between November 1926 and March 1927 and the Human Phenomenon, written between July 1938 and June 1940, which form an “inseparable whole” also says edition I have of Editorial Presença de Lisboa, Portugal.
Singular because it transits from the divine to the human, as the names of the works attest, without slips or ravages, it shows us the “need for the connection between science and religion equally affirmed by Einstein”, an expression by Helmut de Terra, friend and admirer of Chardin. Chardin initiates the divine environment by realizing “the confusion of religious thought in our time” (page 41) and attests that the man of our time “lives with the explicit awareness of being an atom or a citizen of the Universe” (idem).
The timeliness of the text is because the author affirms at the beginning of his book something that has a lot to do with our days, a collective awakening that a beautiful day “makes each individual aware of the true dimensions of life, necessarily provokes in the human mass a profound religious shock, both to slaughter and to exalt ”(ibidem).
This is because the world is too “beautiful: it is to him and only to him that they should worship” (p. 42). What is then the “divine environment”, the world (in our case we explore the universe’s worldviews) will not be more and more fascinating and it would not be and it would be “eclipsing our God” (idem), and there is a connection, in the view of part of Christianity, between God and matter, the Eucharist, she and she alone can create a real sense of reconnecting us to the divine, “this is my body and my blood” said Jesus, and those who eat will have access to eternal life.
Chardin says “the slowly accumulated tension between Humanity and God will reach the limits set by the possibilities of the World, and then it will be the end” (p. 177)… that we must wait not as a catastrophe but as an“ exit ”to the world to which we must collaborate with all our Christian forces without fear of the world, because his enchantments could no longer harm those for whom he became, in addition to himself, the Body of the One who is and the One who comes ”.
Chardin, Teilhard. (no year). O meio edivino: ensaio sobre a vida interior (The divine environment: I teach about the inner life). Lisbon: Editorial Presença.

 

The changing worldview

03 Apr

The Ptolemaic model changed the Aristotelian worldview by creating a model of spiral movement for stars and planets known at the time, changing the worldview, but it was Copernicus who changed the view that took the Earth from the center of the universe and placed the Sun, this model helped the anthropocentric worldview by opposing the theocentric worldview.
Galileo’s great controversy with the theological view was not the cosmological view, but the question of interpretation and biblical reading by the “common”, not by chance the first popular version was called “vulgate” and when deepening the biblical reading some interpretations exegetical activities have been set aside.
However, Galileo before the Holy Office actually affirmed “E pur si muove” (translating Italian and then moves) that today he could look at the whole universe saying “E pur tutto si muove”, everything is in motion and the dynamics no longer resist the classic worldview Being and Not Being, there is an excluded third party that can be thought of as Not Being is still Being, quantum physics and the string model indicate a third state, which is already used in quantum applications.
So the theoretical models and the idealistic worldview together with their universe model collapsed for some time and even the Standard Physics Model that explained particle physics seems in check with the studies of dark matter and energy that are nothing more than 95% of the universe.
The vision of seeing the world through a shock of opposition is gradually crumbling, when admitting an excluded third party (as the Sourbone professor Florent Pasquier calls it) admitting not a synthesis (the result of idealistic opposition, thesis and antithesis), but a third possibility that conjugates with the other two. It must affect the religious world, it is a great support for a time to unite minds and hearts to fight the world pandemic, and it can be the germ of great changes.
A biblical reference to the subject is the moment on the cross that Jesus cries out to God, who no longer calls him Father, the tradition says in the Aramaic language of his mother Mary, and feels separated from the Father, prays in the Trinitarian vision in that Jesus is also God, it is a paradox to separate from the Father.
Jesus on the cross is repeating Psalm 21 “My God, my God, because you abandoned me”, and it seems to be the cry of all humanity in the face of the pandemic, and it is also possible to read the “excluded third” where we learn that the opposition has time and the answer must be everyone’s.
However, the mystical explanation is precisely the third excluded, the human nature of Jesus is reconnecting it to the Father, if we want Teilhard Chardin’s noospheric vision to the Universe, the reading says that it was a great night.

 

Current cosmology is a worldview

02 Apr

Current cosmology is one that considers the universe as having a beginning, which may be a multiverse or a bubble, and that expands in a constant between Hubble’s H0 and the rates measured from the supernovae, whose reconciliation may be the new theory of universe in a bubble launched by Lucas Lombriser whose article appeared in this month’s Physics B magazine.
But this cosmology considers the mystery of the energy and dark matter that makes up 96% of the unknown universe and this puzzle modifies cosmology and also our worldview.
This cosmology postulates the idea that this dark matter does not interact with ordinary matter and the hypothesis something that “swallows” all known matter (called baryonic around it, including light) evolves to the idea that it has a high mass density and collapse of supernovae and their gravitational interaction has an effect on visible matter, stars, galaxies and clusters.
Of what it is made, it is certain that it does not have matter like the now stable model called Standard Physics, which we explored in the previous post, so it goes beyond this model and one of the most interesting theories is that of supersymmetry, which explores the concept of standard physics that each particle has a symmetric, just like bosons and fermions,
What this theory about dark matter proposes is that for every known boson there is an unknown fermion and vice versa, but there is a difference with the theory of antimatter, because antiparticles have opposite charges but the same mass and when they come into contact they produce energy, which would also explain dark energy.
Fermions as well as protons, electrons and neutrons, make up our material world and bosons are the ones that generate the forces of nature, the discovery of the Higgs boson or “God particle” was important because it made us understand the mass, while fermions explain the quantum state because two fermions occupy the same quantum state.
The fact of the existence of dark energy, more interesting than its mystery and presence in 70% of the universe (25% is dark energy) in addition to our ignorance is the fact that it is this “matter” that gives us a complete worldview of our universe , not only because it is dark because it is not visible, but also unknown.
James Gilles’ TED below, seen by more than 2 million people, explains the dark matter theory.

 

A complex and beyond universe

01 Apr

When the dimension of space and time came to be studied not as isolated dimensions, but with this the gravitational force is no longer a consequence of the attraction of bodies, but a consequence of displacement in a curved space-time and thus there should be some “particle” that convey gravity between bodies.
However, gravitons were not easy to observe, a theory called Kaluza-Klein raised the hypothesis that gravity seems weak from where we exist and we observe it, because it could pass through more than three dimensions in our time, and therefore, it dilutes .
In 1960 a group of physicists with the objective of unifying physics, developed the idea of string theory where constituent units of existing matter and the elementary particles of nature are tiny oscillating vibrating strings made of energy, which, varying the oscillation, creates the various types of matter known, the weak, strong, electromagnetic forces and gravity.
The great merit of the various characteristics of the strings was to perceive vibratory patterns in the particles and going on to indicate that there could be a messenger particle of the gravitational force called gravitón, which was recently proven and this changed the conception of Universe.
In a lecture presented by Edward Witten in 1995, the so-called Second String Revolution began, which discovered patterns called Type I, Type II (A), Type II (B), Heterotic-O, Heterotic-E, had a pattern of behavior called a coupling constant. this indicated that the particles came in pairs, for example Heteritóca; O and type II (A) was inversely proportional to heterotic-E and this to Type II (B), and the theory was essential to understand the strings.
Another factor that M-theory helped to understand the Universe was that it incorporated a completely new theory of dimensions, created the idea of eleven-dimensional supergravity, but an old doubt among astrophysicists still persisted and would change everything.

There were two constants of the expansion of the universe, which Hubble called H) and the measure from distant supernovae moving away (see the post), it was recently that Lucas Lombriser, said that it is like “If we were in a kind of gigantic” bubble “, so supernovae would have influences outside this “bubble” that we live in, due to even more enigmatic forces coming from “outside”.

 

A complete Universe model

31 Mar

The busy life and the buildings of the big cities prevent us from seeing the starry night sky where you can count more than a thousand stars with the naked eye, and is the model of this universe already known.

The whole that can be known hides a Whole that is all of creation and that had its Fiat or its Big Bang an initial moment and is gradually unveiled by research and the large telescopes built and that can now search beyond the Milky Way and many planets can be seen.

Even with all studies, what we know is only 5% of the composition of the universe, as shown by the figures of the Dark Energy Survey (DES), led by the American laboratory Fermilab, since 25% of the universe is dark matter and the remaining 70% are dark energy.

Since the first moment of the Big Bang, the universe has accelerated the pace of its expansion and the process has not slowed down, through the observation of a type of supernovae, end-of-life stars that collapse and emit an amount of brightness comparable to the center of the stars. galaxies, it is concluded that dark energy was the one that increases the speed of this growth process.

Dark matter, on the other hand, gets its name because it does not interact with photons (the particles of light, which are now definitely massless particles in the current model) and thus it is not possible to directly detect them through telescopes where the color and quality of the light makes them possible to be studied.

This dark matter is noted for its gravitational effect, that is, it has gravity and the visible bodies interact with it, and although we know that it exists, studies on the phenomena that happen to them and their interaction with other celestial bodies only started, studying their shapes and the distortions that cause their gravitational fields, which gives some information.

The study that covered approximately 300 million galaxies, 100,000 clusters and 2,000 supernovae, in addition to objects from our Milky Way and the Solar System.

In 2016 a detailed map of 43.00 galaxies was published reaching a distance of 380 million light years from the solar system, called the 2MASS Reshift Survey (2MRS) was presented at 218º. American Astronomy Society meeting in Boston, USA.

The Gaia satellite launched in 2013 by the European Special Agency (ESA) completed in 2018 its mission to register the stars and make a 3D map of the Milky Way (photo above), but the result according to Leah Crane, an astronomy expert was “The universe just got even more confused,” he wrote in the new Scientist magazine.