Arquivo para a ‘Astronomia’ Categoria

Terrestrial identity and the black hole

01 Nov

Chapter 2 of Edgar Morin’s book is “The Terrestrial Identity Card” where he states that after the discoveries of astrophysics, biology, paleontology, ideas about the life of the universe, the nature of the Earth and man’s own life were “subverted in the 1950s-1970s” and we still didn’t have James Webb and the discovery of the ties between homo sapiens and Neanderthals.

“Afterwards, with Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, the Earth stopped being the center of the universe and became a round planet around the Sun, like the other planets” (page 43) and seemed to “witness the perfection of its divine creator” for order and regularity, until an expanding universe was discovered based on Hubble’s observations of the separation of stars in 1923, the astrophysicist would later give his name to the famous telescope already surpassed by James Web.

At the beginning of the 19th century, “Laplace expelled the Creator God from a self-sufficient universe that had become a perfect machine for all eternity” (pg. 44) and not cited there, but also in a Mathematics Conference at the beginning of the 19th century. . XX Hilbert proposes some last problems not solved by mathematics, to say that everything is logical and mathematical.

In 1965, Arno Penzias and Harold Wilson would give facts for this expansion of the universe as an “isotropic radiation originating from all horizons of the universe” and this “cosmological background noise” a kind of “fossil residue” from the initial deflagration of the initial explosion that would confirm the famous Big Bang theory, today the new data casts doubt on this, but something remained from this period, which is the conception of anti-matter and the investigation of black holes.

The 1960s, when Penzias and Wilson won a Nobel Prize, would bring new celestial bodies among them: “quasars (1963), pulsars (1968) (pg. 44), then black holes, and astrophysicists’ calculations suggest that we only know 10% of the matter, 90% of which is still invisible to our detection instruments” and that James Web is only now looking at.

The center of our galaxy is no longer the sun, but a black hole, and in it unfolds a whole new vision of the universe as “in its beginning the Unknown, the Unfathomable and the Inconceivable” (pg. 44), here we are now in a galaxy 8 billion years after “the birth of the world, and which, with its neighbors, seems attracted to a huge invisible mass called the “great Attractor” “ (idem), which is a black hole.

And we, a small planet, created 4 billion years ago, discover that it has a history, “and takes shape in the 19th century” and on the threshold of the 20th century, the German Alfred Wegener elaborates the theory of continental drift, despite the initial resistance, proven later.

After its initial long periods of cooling, the formation of the first microorganisms, and finally man appears, “the last and deviant branch of the tree of life, appears within the biosphere, which, linking ecosystems to ecosystems, now involves the entire planet”, This early birth, in recent discovery also unites Neanderthals and homo sapiens.

If “Bacon, Descartes, Buffon, Marx make it their mission to dominate nature and reign over the universe” (pg. 54), “from Rousseau onwards, romanticism will umbilically link the human being to Mother Nature” and thus, having a mother, man can be born and inhabit this Mother Earth.

MORIN, E. and Kern, A.B. Terra-Pátria. Trans. by Paulo Azevedo Neves da Silva. Brazil, Porto Alegre: Sulina, 2003.



Eclipses of the civilizing process

13 Oct

Harmony between peoples, acceptance and tolerance of differences, dialogue and diplomacy on conflicting issues seem to be further away than ever, like an annular eclipse, it obscures the light and lets only a ring of fire pass through, and as they are There are several points of light sources, there are also regions of shadows that will be confused, looking like night.

Various research shows that this happens to birds when faced with an eclipse, they see that it is getting dark and they behave as they do at dusk, they reduce their activities, withdraw and almost go to sleep, as the eclipse is quick, then they return to normal activities.

These are civilizing processes, there are periods of darkness and it seems like it could be an endless night, but after this moment seeing the mistake of “sleep” during the twilight, they rediscover life and return to normal activities, in the human case with a new perspective of Peace and tolerance, of course, always leave terrible marks: innocent deaths, destruction and misery.

We could have prepared a party, a concert and harmony between peoples, there was no shortage of educators, prophets and futurists who tried to design this scenario, but men always have free will, in our case, we can choose between the eclipse and the twilight and the day.

Eclipse because whether by natural forces or by divine intervention, those who believe desire and wait for this day, even if millions of innocent people perish, the desire for the triumph of good, common sense and peace among men is always an irreversible path, even if they suffer.

There is a biblical parable that depicts this scenario well, a man was preparing a party and as the guests did not come (they chose other paths), he sent for men on the street, but among them there was also one with inappropriate attire (anti-party attitudes) and asked to be removed, says the reading (Matthew 22, 10-12):

“Then the servants went out into the paths and gathered together everyone they found, both bad and good. And the party room was full of guests. When the king entered to see his guests, he noticed a man who was not wearing a party attire and asked him: ‘Friend, how did you come in here without your party attire?’ “.

“Then the servants went out into the paths and gathered together everyone they found, both bad and good. And the party room was full of guests. When the king entered to see his guests, he noticed a man who was not wearing a party attire and asked him: ‘Friend, how did you come in here without your party attire?’ .

The civilizing process is like this, whoever will win a conflict situation, everyone will lose and in the end those who were on the margins of the conflict process will prepare a new path

Walter, Jennifer. Lunar eclipses have one weird effect on birds. Inverse. March 17, 2022, Available in: .



Eclipse, shadow and twilight

12 Oct

We have seen historical and mystical aspects of the annular Eclipse, now let us focus only on the phenomenon.

The Eclipse is a natural phenomenon that occurs when a body is within a region of shadow caused by another body that has enough light to reduce the luminosity. In the case of a solar eclipse, the Sun is the luminous star and the Moon is positioned between the Sun and Earth, producing a shadow on Earth.

For the Moon to cast a shadow on the Earth, it must be in the New Moon phase, which is when it is between the Sun and the Earth and has a slight semi-arc on one of its edges.

To better understand how eclipses occur, we need to know the concepts of shadow and twilight.

A shadow is when from a point source of light (that is, its dimensions can be neglected as if it were a single point) it is projected onto a smaller intermediate object that will produce a shadow on the larger object, this shadow can also be called an umbra.

In the penumbra there is an extensive source of light, which must be taken into account when the light source is very large or is close to the object, in the case of the Sun it is large enough to produce, from the light on the Moon, a shadow and a penumbra over the Earth (figure).

Thus, the rays of light do not come from a single point, due to the size of the Sun, but from several points, so there will be a region in which it produces a shadow, but others with partial lighting that produce some shades of twilight.

In the figure, the shield disk is the Moon and the larger disk is the Earth. For educational purposes, only one region of shadow was produced, but they are diverse and weaken as they move away from the shadow region.

The phenomenon of the lunar eclipse next Saturday (10/14) is special because an arc around the Sun becomes visible and is therefore called an Annular Eclipse (in the form of a ring).


Eclipse, the Theory of Relativity and town Sobral

11 Oct

In addition to mystical and historical factors, the eclipse helped the development of both physics and astronomy, there is a curious relationship between an eclipse, the Theory of Relativity and the Brazilian city in the State of Ceará: Sobral.

On May 29, 1919, the sky over the city of Sobral, a city in the interior of State Ceará, Brazil, dawned cloudy (photo taken by the National Observatory in 1919) and the effort of the delegation of astronomers who went there to observe the eclipse and prove their ideas Albert Einstein’s revolutionary ideas would be in vain.

Fortunately, at nine o’clock in the morning a space opened between the clouds and it was possible to make the desired observations.

Einstein’s ideas were that there would be a distortion in the space-time dimensions and that this would be linked to the proximity of massive bodies, stated as follows:

“The trajectory of light can be distorted if there is a massive body distorting space-time in its trajectory, so it appears that the source that emitted that light is in a different position.”

With sensitive equipment, it was possible to make this comparison in the positions during the eclipse and after it, which occurred in May 1919. In December, after months of studying the observations, it was announced that Einstein’s theory was correct, and this is a fact which made the theory of absolute space and time obsolete.

The observation took place thanks to intense collaboration between Brazil and England, including the famous English astronomer Arthur Eddington, from the Royal Astronomical Society and the Brazilian Henrique Morize, then director of the National Observatory (ON), and Sobral was chosen because it had better visibility. of the eclipse.

One hundred years after the event, in 2019 the Brazil-United Kingdom partnership in Science and Innovation was celebrated, Brazilian physicist Anelise Pacheco, director of MAST  (Brazilian Astronomical and Sciences Related Museum) declared at the time: “Without cooperation, there is no science”, this also applies to the days of today.


Annular eclipse: historical and mystical data

10 Oct

On October 14th, an annular eclipse should take place, one in which the moon leaves a small ring with southern light and settles in the center of the king star, and which has curious historical and mystical data.

The first historically narrated eclipse, by Herodotus, describes the battle of the Medes and Lydians (590-585 BC) which ended with an agreement after they realized that the day turned into night and in their understanding the darkness should cease for peace, Herodotus describes it like this:

“In the sixth year of the war, a battle took place, and when the fighting had begun, suddenly the day turned into night. (…) The Lydians and the Medes, when they saw that the night had replaced the day, ceased their fight, anxious for peace to be established between them.” Herodotus (1.74).

Before calculating the date of the eclipse, it was believed that the battle would have been fought on September 30, 610 BC (according to William Smith’s Dictionary of the Greeks and Romans), but modern astronomical calculations have established the date as May 28 from 585 BC

The second data was established with the help of the biblical reading of the battles in Israel of Ajailon and Gibeon, which helped, according to the BBC, to reveal the date of an even earlier eclipse, at the time of the retaking of Israel by the Jews returning from Egyptian exile. , the reading that helped reveal this date, also known as Joshua’s prayer, is this (Joshua 10:12-14): “Sun, stand over Gibeon, and you, Moon, over the Valley of Aijalon”.

The BBC report, physicist Colin Humphreys, director of research at the University of Cambridge in England, and astrophysicist Graeme Waddington using this passage calculated the date of the annular eclipse and found October 30, 1207 BC.

The report also mentions that the first person to suggest such a date was the linguist Robert Wilson (1918) and that he even suggests a re-reading of the biblical text:

‘Eclipse, O Sun, in Gibeon,

And the Moon in the Valley of Aijalom´.


Since today we know that there will be a band where the eclipse is total (image) and bands next to it where the eclipse gives a partial shadow.

HeródotoHistórias, Livro I, Clio, 74.


Seeing far and blinding near

11 Jul

Recently James Webb’s special observatory saw the most distant galaxy that man can ever observe, the galaxy called JADES-GS-Z13-0 (photo) is approximately 320 million years from the Big Bang, which for us is a great measure, for a universe of 13.5 billion years old means relatively a few seconds after the Big Bang (one of the theories of the formation of the universe).

On the other hand, we are witnessing an increasingly unstable, unfair, ruthless and dangerous world, and with a catastrophic nuclear danger close at hand, it seems that a good part of humanity treats everything as if it were normality, not caring much about the fate of the planet. and the civilizing process that is not stagnant, but regressing in frightening steps.

The strangeness of this discovery of the universe is at the same time that we find amounts of Carbon and Oxygen in these bodies, the same James Web discovered a little later that six more galaxies (Jades was discovered with another three “near”), which were very massive where bodies smaller than those found there were expected at the beginning of the Universe.

The discovery showed that they have masses of approximately 100 million solar masses, while the normal would be for younger galaxies smaller masses, our Milky Way for example “older” has a mass of 1.5 trillion solar masses.

Furthermore it is a nursery of stars, about three suns are born there every year, and their masses are poor in metals of chemical substances heavier than helium and hydrogen (remember that they are at the top of the chemical periodic table on the left and right ).

If this restores humility to the knowledge we have of the universe, the same does not happen with social scientists, anthropologists and paleontologists, who the more they discover about our origin on the planet, for example that Neanderthals and homo sapiens coexisted and even crossed paths creating a diverse humanity, little tolerant we are with races and cultures.

And intolerance means less peace, more dangers and now we don’t have stones, axes and bows, we have nuclear weapons and dangerous atomic power plants that are subject not only to human limits, but also to natural and geological ones.

The geosphere and biosphere depend today as never before in the history of the noosphere and on what we cultivate as a civilizing culture and as a vision of other cultures and races.



Cosmogony, cosmology and eschatology

04 Jul

We have already developed here the idea of ​​Kosmos in Greek philosophy, which is a time that designates the entire universe as a whole, but it is also “order”, “beauty” and “harmony” for the Greeks, now with powerful telescopes such as the Hubble and James Webb we know that there is also chaos and disharmony in the universe, but the deeper question remains: how did it all begin?

Cosmogonies are a body of doctrines, from religious and mythical principles to scientific ones that seek to explain the order and principle of the universe in its cosmogenesis.

As man became more sedentary, he tried to better adapt to nature to satisfy the needs of animals and plants, needing to look at the sky and understand the seasons to better control crops and pastures for animals.

Practically all civilizations (or civilizational eras) elaborated their cosmogonies, for example, in Western civilization the geocentric model of Ptolemy (the earth is the center), passed to the Copernican model (the heliocentric model), now with the power of James Webb we are looking at the first galaxies and this is possible because the light reaching us has already traveled several light years, so we are seeing a picture of the past.

Thus, our vision of cosmogenesis is gradually changing, at the moment, for example, the telescope that works with a different spectrum of light, the infrared, managed to spot a galaxy 400 million years after the big bang (if this theory is right), which means 13.5 billion years ago (photo), that is, we are seeing almost our cosmogenesis.

Cosmology is then increasingly closer to cosmogesis and this would mean a vision of both, but the essential questions are still missing: where did we come from and where are we going?

Thus, an eschatological vision, beginning and end, is lacking, and one question is already certain, although the planet could collapse and with it our civilization, due to the action of an external cataclysm or a destruction of human artifacts: a war, the very danger of there are so many nuclear power plants on the planet, remember the incident of Fukushima in 2011 and Chernobyl, the planet now has 440 active and 23 under construction, in addition to the military arsenal in several countries.

In the midst of the stormy wind of our time, Christian cosmogony takes shelter and waits in the divine presence of that reading that says (Mt 8:27): “What sort of man is this, that even the winds and the sea obey him?” when the apostles wake him up on the boat because of the weather and the rough ocean.




The question of the consciousness of Being

04 May

Thanks to the new and surprising advancement of deep intelligence machines (deep learning), the issue of consciousness, which was already thought of in philosophy, now spreads across all areas of thought, and what we dealt with in previous posts also dealt with this.

Now it is a matter of deciding whether it is possible to think of consciousness only as something logical and instrumental, so the machine, through deep and elaborate algorithms in dialogue with humans, could reach this level, if something beyond, which we reformulate in the category for-itself, then we have to think of a consciousness of the universe and it cannot be a thing, but a Being.

Why is there something and not nothing is a question raised since Leibniz, who solves it through the monad, and God is (would be) the “Monad of monads” (the phrase is from Hegel, sic!), then the universe was putting into movement, then in a quantum space-time, the Big Bang, and now the James Webb telescope captures an image that would be of a possible origin of the universe, with many galaxies, something is wrong.

In an article published in the journal Nature on February 22, “A population of red candidate massive galaxies 600 Myr after the Big Bang” (Labbé et al.) (Myr, millions of light years) indicates that close to the big bang there would already be massive galaxies and not the first formations of nebulae, for example (see our post), so could it be that there was already a universe in formation from the beginning?

Regardless of this, the question remains: who what or what mystery sent the beginning of everything.

Just as one cannot speak of ethics without metaphysics, it is not something substantial but spiritual, one cannot speak of consciousness only as something natural, based on experience.

Starting from Husserlian phenomenology, his disciple Heidegger elaborated consciousness as follows: the phenomenology (experience) of consciousness is not a path that lies before natural consciousness and leads it towards the absolute, like an itinerarium mentis in deum (Heidegger, 2007 , p. 169), rather it is the course that the absolute itself follows on the way to the truth of its complete appearing. (Heidegger, 2007, p. 169)

But Heidegger continues as in any modern building, he has the question of knowledge as a pillar of natural consciousness, he does not admit a transcendent revealed consciousness (for-itself), thus being a knowledge that has not yet realized in itself the whole truth (Heidegger 2007 , p. 169).

So it is about denying the truth revealed as truth, although your consciousness remains linked to the Being (it is ontological as your thought), there is no possibility of a pure primordial Being, a Being-for-itself, omniscient and omnipotent, so we are left looking at the telescope image.

There is a transcendent for-itself that surrounds this question, and thus a consciousness that projects beyond even the beginning of the universe, and that at the same time is present in every being-in-itself.

Heidegger, Martin (2007). Hegel. Translation by Dina V. Picotti C. Buenos Aires: Prometeo Libros, 2007.


Changes in earth and sky

25 Nov

Little is analyzed about the great social changes in the history of the earth and in human life, the earth came long before human life, they also represented man’s vision of the universe and its mysteries, and thus there is a correspondence between earthly changes and their corresponding cosmogony , whether this is just a coincidence or divine providence depends on the cosmovision itself, but it has changed for sure.

Thus, the vision of the cosmos at the beginning of Classical Antiquity is as evident as the birth of the Greek polis and its consequences for the modern world, Aristarchus of Samos (310 BC – 230 BC) came to calculate the radius of the Earth long before the circus navigation ( Fernão de Magalhães 1512), and also at the end of the Middle Ages the Ptolemaic idea of ​​Geocentrism gave way to Copernican heliocentrism and the change from feudalism to modern liberalism can be linked to this change in astronomical vision.

In current times, initially Hubble and now James Webb have made man look to the ends of the universe and even a change in the modernity of relativity theory, black holes and wormholes show a universe in greater mutation than we expected, thousands of galaxies are born and die throughout the universe and our system is just a grain of sand.

Perhaps the great revolution is the change in the conception of time, we can look at the birth of the Universe (see our post on the divine locus) which may not be called eternity, but is more than a simple absolute dimension of time and space, and perhaps it is more than Einstein’s space-time dimension.

In the biblical path Adam and Eve appear at a time when man is already sedentary and no longer nomadic, since Cain was a farmer of the earth and Abel a shepherd of sheep, who knows, the death of Cain was the first land conflict of humanity, the It is certain that this fact is linked to a new sedentary worldview, just as Noah would correspond to a deluge, or perhaps a simple flood that occurred in the Arabian peninsula, since it is located below the Negro, where we can observe the narrow Bosphorus, the path of sea ​​between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.

Thus, the time of Noah may have meant a geographical change, at least in that region of the planet that involved the transformation that took place further down between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, the cradle of Arab civilization, and if there is no historical record of Noah, there is of his descendants: the Semites, from his son Shem, who had populated the region.

Thus, when speaking of the transformations that heavens and earth would undergo, the biblical reading of Luke (Lk 24, 37-39): “The coming of the Son of Man will be like in the time of Noah. For in the days before the flood, people were running and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noah entered the ark. And they knew nothing until the flood came and swept them all away. So shall it be in the life of the Son of Man,” the second coming called the Parousia.

The great civilizational crisis will not have to be just a change in the social structure, but it will certainly accompany a physical change on the planet, since its environmental forces are running out.




Where is the divine locus

10 Nov

Of course the divine locus is anti-spatial and temporal, even modern quantum physics developed the theory of the space-time dimension as the only dimension and where there are folds in time, but it is likely that physics will still make discoveries greater than wormholes. , accelerated space travel dimensions and will change our cosmic view of space.

The latest discoveries by James Webb, the telescope that looks at the origin of creation, already sees in what astronomers call the pillars of creation, the new images (10/19) show formations that look like rocks, but which are clouds of gas and dust of astronomical dimensions, where stars and celestial bodies are formed, in a kind of nursery.

The new image, using James Webb’s infrared resource [and it is possible to better observe the dust in this region of star formation (Image from NASA above), improving the image on the left of 2014 from the Hubble telescope, the image on the right being the image by James Webb.

In terms of the eschatological cosmovision, the one that studies the beginning and end of humanity, it is possible to imagine that through a “time warp”, we are still stuck in Einstein’s physics, this cloud forms and starts a development of stars, supernovae and galaxies in the universe.

The divine plan is even broader, since the time of Jesus, men wanted to know when the “kingdom of God” would be formed, an earthly dimension in which our human condition would be elevated to a level of happiness and prosperity that would reach everyone. , “where milk and honey flow”, but the master’s answer was not very pleasing to those who wanted something more tangible.

The reading in John 1:20-21 says they wanted to know the moment of this “kingdom” and Jesus replied: “the kingdom of God does not come ostensibly, nor can it be said ‘is here or ‘is there, because the kingdom of God is among you”, that is, it must take place among men, so there will still be many changes in the human and earthly dimension until this stage.

And the passage clearly says that before this the son of man (Jesus who is a presence of God among us said above), will have to be rejected and will suffer much.

Thus, it is necessary to find spaces of solidarity and fraternity among men where these seeds of full life are developed, men understand each other and look with love for their fellow man, without contempt or exclusion.

So this kingdom is near where there is love and brotherhood and far away where there is greed and exclusion.