Arquivo para a ‘on-line libraries sharing’ Categoria

Onto-antropotecnical forest trailsh

12 Mar

We have already posted on the Veredas da Salvação (Veredas in portuguese is similar toaoTreinamento forest trails), a damned part of the time of the military dictatorship, and we have also posted on the novel by João Guimarães Rosa, Grande Sertão: Veredas (Big forest: trails), where farm foreman Riobaldo is in love with Diadorim, a love that confuses with beauty and fear, which speaks of a symbolic crossing of a river, and of the “devils” between a being and a non-being, thus said in the novel:
“... the devil exists or not … and goes on to say … Well, the devil regulates his black state, in creatures, in women, in men, even in children,” I say. (…) And in the uses, in the plants, in the waters, in the earth, in the wind … Manure … The devil in the street, in the middle of the whirlpool ... ” (Rosa, 2001, 26).
One could see Easter in the Brazilian oral tradition, but the novel is an exercise of orality in the midst of popular culture, like this crossing of a river, and we would find much significance not only for national culture, for politics, Guimarães Rosa, and a new time, where the passage means a “National Easter”, can you dream of it?
Interestingly, and even paradoxically, we may find the same concern in Petr Sloterdijk’s definition of the antropotechnics as proof that this is a national (in brazilian sense) and universal point.
Sloterdijk clarifies by giving three dimensions of antropotechnical: the illusionist side, rigidly organized, in which the members must exercise, the psycho-technical side that is the training script to explore the struggle for survival, and the third, an ironic, radically flexible side for all, a kind of business-trainer (Sloterdijk, 2009, 168).
The religious dimension, not that religious one in which one thinks of a reconnection of the beings and of these with God, considering and respecting the specificity and personality of each one, but that dogmatic one, owner of the truth (theme of our last week) and something “unscrupulous” .
Anthropotechnics as an unveiling of being, is to discover these masks and manipulations that exist in all spheres of society, from religion to politics, from common sense to scientific, and that at bottom has nothing to do with being and not with any kind of humanism.
Of course, everyone wants the integration of humanity, even Trump is going to speak to Korean, but the whole anthropoprofessional relationship is far from an onto-anthropotechnic, they use and abuse the post-truth, manipulate facts and narratives, from public lies to everyday lies .
It is not possible for such an environment to awaken the human, the relationship of Being and humanism.

ROSA, J. G. Grande Sertão: Veredas. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, 2001.

SLOTERDIJK, P. Du musst Dein Leben ändern. Über Antropotechnik (You have to change your life. About anthropotechnology). Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 2009.


The symbolic evil and the lost paradise

19 Feb

The reflection of the symbolic evil done by the Frenchman Paul Ricoeur refers to the study of language and theadamicSymbols use of hermeneutics to say what is the manifestation of evil in reality, it is not only violence, but essentially evil at different levels of reality.
In exploring the symbolic function of evil, he resorted to primary myths such as the fall of Adam revealed in the need to recognize the symbol as a means of understanding reality, in the case of the Adamic myth, the three great monotheistic religions: Judaism, Islam, and Christianity .
To purge the evil beyond the ontological sense that we have treated in the previous posts, and to move towards an understanding of the ethical implications of the search for self-awareness, the roots of violence seem empty and ill-explained when they do not recognize the “symbol.”
The idea present in the Adamic myth of the expulsion of paradise, and that this is due to the use of the “forbidden fruit” has already been sung in prose and verse in books (Eça de Queiroz wrote Adam and Eve in paradise), songs and even philosophical treatises as Paul Ricoeur does today, but the incomprehension of this presents in the “being” or in the spheres of immunology as Petr Sloterdijk, seem to ignore the concepts of “value” and “wealth” as Edgar Morin and Patrick Viveret want (Living in crisis times).
Far from apocalyptic appeals, it is necessary to understand the complexity of the current course of human history, rather it is a crisis with deep aspects, but it is those moments in which a great upset is announced, in our view the “ontological turn”, a deep roots change in our being, and this has nothing liquid and will be quite solid.
Humanity has already made great leaps in the periods of the great civilizations of the East: the Persians, the Babylonians and the Egyptians, but in the Latin American civilizations: Aztecs, Incas and Mayans.
These civilizations have fallen, but others have followed in different ways, what seems false is the developmentalist paradigm, for although it is unknown the human is prevalent, we have done much in the period of modernity, but its idealizations of Individual, State and individual property seems to be false, does not necessarily mean a way out of the socialist model, but will certainly mean some collective output, the individual being-there seems to be do-ente, and something more present in the ethical being-with-other relationship seems a viable path, relationships and solidarity.



What we can read in 2018

26 Dec

One of the books in my stack of new reading is Sapiens – a brief history of aMãohumanity by Yuval Noah Harari, the original English edition is 2015, but the Portuguese edition that comes to Brazil, by the editors of Porto Alegre LP & M in Brazil , it is 2017 with translation by Janaí­na Marcoantonio, just leaf through until now, but I already feel the weight of the book as from the opening chapter The cognitive revolution, with the topic an insignificant animal, until the Scientific Revolution, with the first topic: the discovery of ignorance.

We have already punctuated in several posts about the discovery of the Chauvet Cave, the book opens The cognitive revolution with a human hand (picture inside) in this cave of 30 thousand years ago, a painting the first chapter that I have already begun to read.

Whoever wants to make a counterpoint, a classic book (my brother pointed out to me) is H.G. Wells’ book, it goes back to the very beginning of the universe. Published in 1922, A Brief History of the World is a panorama about the planet and humanity, from the appearance of living beings, through the origin of peoples, religions, great navigations, wars, Industrial Revolution until the First War World, the book is from 1922, and curiously it is also from LP & M, in brazilian edition.

I’m going to Portugal next year, at least I want to go (yes it’s the money), launched in November the book by Ricardo Araujo Pereira: “Reacctionary with two c´s”, speaks of the conservative wave in Portugal, but I think it should also speak of Europe and around the world, his book “Illness, Suffering and Death Go into a Bar” was a complete success with 40,000 copies sold, this new one should not be different.

A book that I have already read and I will reread is the Byung-Chul Han’s “Society of Tiredness”, in a whole new light, it traces the profile of a society that can not, for more goods, produce a human being greater happiness and speaks of an absence of meaning of life, the end that criticism does not taste is very good, worth reading.

Speaking of the happiness of Augusto Cury, but this time with several authors, the happiest man in history – several authors, I do not know if he will comment other authors or if it will include them in his reflection, but this does not matter, it seems that the already consecrated author has reached maturity in the search for a collective discourse, is already among the most sold in Brazil.

Among these four there is no sequel, but would say so for those most concerned with politics, and they are right, would start with the Portuguese Ricardo Araujo Pereira, and would end with Augusto Cury, for the lazy would end up with Sapiens – a brief history of humanity , because it is dense and great too, it has 448 pages without counting the index.

The lazy reader can still start with the Byung-Chul book which is only 128 pages in small format (this giving almost half A4 in Brazilian edition).

Of course there are many other readings, but if you read 4 books a year, at the end of your life you will be a thinker, living on average 70 years and discounting the 14 of adolescence, although we can read children’s books and for young people, 56 years x 4 books, 224 books and you is a great lecture


Razões para ser um cientista

13 Sep






Orthasty: the unknown tragedy

31 Aug

Orthasty was first staged in 458 BCE, and was the first-prize winner at the OrestiaAthens Dionysiac festivals, although it was written by Aeschylus, it is unknown and unappreciated today. Tragedy is associated in our day, not by accident, pains, catastrophes, something where there are many victims, or even the unfolding of some violent action like a murder, a war or a serious natural accident, for the Greeks was something else.

Tragikós defined an innovative artistic form, or something that only occurred between the great events that changed the history. in Aristotle’s view, one of the first to study the impact of theatrical spectacles, the tragedy would be “an imitation of a serious, concrete action of a certain magnitude, represented but not narrated, provocative of Katarsis, catharsis, which is the purging of the emotions of the spectators.

Orthasty, of Aeschylus is therefore a great representative of this modality of theater, the play can be divided into three parts: in the first Agamenon shows the return of this character of the Trojan War, where he succeeded in killing his own daughter, Iphigenia, in sacrifice to the gods, but this is not well received by the mother Clytemnestra who wants to avenge the death of the daughter with the help of the Aegisthus lover.

In the second part Coéforas, narrates the return of Orestes, son of Agamênon, directed by the god Apollo, to avenge the death of the father, he is helped by its sister, Electra, that was maintained like servant in the attic of the castle by its mother, Clytemnestra And in the third part, Eumenides, brings the wrath of Clytemnestra, already dead, materialized in the Furies, which are seen only by Orestes and responsible for its madness.

It also narrates the judgment of the crime of Orestes: the murder of the own mother, that will be analyzed by the goddess Athena. Although the complex of Electra, which is not properly the love of children by the mother, but the desire of matricide observed in macho societies, the problem is actually justice and politics represented by the goddess Athena, proclaims a court to to judge the murder committed by Orestes, and it will be instituted forever, but the question that remains is why do gods need sacrifices?

We tried to respond in the next post.


The Republic or Politeia

18 Jul

The main work of Plato was written around 380 BC, is a speech developed Politeiain philosophical, political and social terms.
Its problem is the search for a formula that ensures harmony to a city, trying since that time to unlock private interests and disputes, as the sophists wanted.
This dialogue takes place in the house of Polemarco, brother of Lysias and Euthydemus, son of the old Cefalus, and there are the two brothers of Plato, Glauco and Adimanto; Nicerato, in addition to the host Polemarco, Lísias, Cefalus and Thrasymachus.
Thrasymachus is the sophist, Plato’s dialectical method is of dialogue and not of strife, the sophist argues that force is a right, and that justice is guaranteed by the strongest, so determines that the unjust can transgress its rules, Then it is said that they do not exist.
Books I and II are the first attempt to define what the application of justice to the community would really be, in Socrates’ dialogue with Glaucon and Adimanto, explains that justice is superior to injustice, and that alone leads to happiness.
Thus from the books II to V the dialogues will evolve to affirm what are the principles of justice, that is, what constitutes the true justice administered to the population, principle of its Republic.
From the books VI and VII evolve the principles of what the needs of justice itself are, it is where the famous allegory of the Cave appears, where they are trying to show that truth can be attained through knowledge, and therefore, justice depends on Know it, so the myth is mainly the fact that men “in the cave” only see shadows.
Books VIII and IX, develop the themes on the decadence of the city, which for Plato is due to the concentration of power in the oligarchies and the emergence of tyranny.
Book X makes a critique of poetry as an educational medium, this is not secondary, but fundamental to understand that the problem from the beginning of modernity is this conflict defended by Plato putting it in the mouth of Socrates that poetry should be replaced by Philosophy, educational environment, we would say today more “objective”, more real.
The rest of the book brings an exhortation to the practice of justice and other virtues, these are only indications for reading, which is nothing but looking at our deep roots.



Phenomenology, the Other and dialogue

11 Jul

The phenomenological psychology also uses several conceptions coming from the philosophicalArendt tradition, and to imagine that it is purely philosophical that derives from the ontological turn or only a psychological language, both are not truths, therefore can be so much can be linked in the psychological theory and the practice, like being Present in various fields, for example in communication.
If it is desired to achieve greater rigor and coherence in the ontological Being, it is necessary to resort to the conception of man of this proposal, making it explicit. (Heidegger’s Weltanschauung), which implies a “dasein” as written by Heidegger: “this being which is in each case we And which has, among other characteristics, the possibility of Being “(Heidegger in Being and Time).
All that exists is to be, but man is ontologically different from other beings, being received in his humanity in a world of concrete relationships without separating his natural being from his spiritual sphere, he must develop attitudes and actions to sustain his own life, It can be said that it is a dasein that has several rays of possibilities, so how to find its own ray, this is where the psychology and its deeper Being is placed.
As much as he seeks stability and security in various ways throughout history, man is always faced with existential issues that destabilize him and set him in motion, Hanna Arendt’s book The Human Condition can help a great deal.
Singularity and plurality coexist side by side in the difficult task of inhabiting the world and transforming it (Arendt, 2002), this seems very current and paradigmatic in this global time.
While Being that delimits an ontology, which is shown in its entirety, the singularity shows a human structure that is understood as biopsychosocial and spiritual.
The biological dimension is expressed in corporeity, to which man is permanently attached while he lives, so he can not separate it from its “substantiality.”
This substantiality is the singular form among the others of the same species, being at the same time limit and opening to the world through perception (Arendt, 2002).
From the perspective of Martin Buber (1923/2001), it is not through the transcendence of the mundane reality that one arrives at the spiritual level, but precisely by being immersed in it, from the relation with the Other.
Arendt, H. The life of the spirit: thinking, wanting, judging (Brazilian edition), 2002.


Forgive me Todorov!

10 Feb

I discover only today, who died on February 7 of this year in Paris, Tzvetan AConquistaDaAmericaOutroTodorov, philosopher and literary critic bulgáro, little known, but not less important for our century.
I have as his strongest phrase, one that made him a prophet of the invasion of Islam in Europe, he said long before the emigration crisis: “We can measure our degree of barbarity or civilization by how we perceive and welcome others, the different . ”
An interview he gave in France (Radio France Culture, 2009), helps to see this prophecy of Todorov: “” I wrote my first book of History of Ideas, which is called ‘We and the Others’. It was a work on the plurality of cultures analyzed from the point of view of the French tradition. I studied authors from Montaigne (…) to Levi-Strauss. I have tried to see how these authors treated this difficult question for us today: the unity of humanity and the plurality of cultures. In this series of authors, I discovered that the ones I felt closest to were the humanists. ”
In Brazil, he gave an interview to the Borders of Thought in 2012, in which he stated: “I realized that, as a historian and essayist, I took advantage of literature more than literature studies, and read novels, poetry, and Different histories than literary analyzes or written theses on literature, which seem to me nowadays to be directed almost exclusively to other specialists in literature. While the novel interests everyone, and I feel closer to everyone than the experts. ”
His most famous books are: The conquest of America: the question of the Other, São Paulo, SP: Martins Fontes, 1982 (pdf), The Man Uprooted. São Paulo: Editora Record, 1999, The Fear of the Barbarians: beyond the clash of civilizations. Petrópolis: Editora Vozes, 2010, The Intimate Enemies of Democracy. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2012, Life in common: essay on general anthropology. São Paulo: Unesp Publishing House, 2014.
Lesser known books, but no less important: I consider a classic the book Theories of the symbol. São Paulo: Editora Unesp, 2014, Symbolism and interpretation. São Paulo: Unesp Publishing, 2014 and Theory of literature: texts of the Russian formalists. São Paulo: Unesp Publishing House, 2013.
He died at age 77, in the city of Paris, was born in march 1st , Sofia, Bulgarian in 1939, though considered within the structuralist chain, without thought transcended it and is one of our important contemporaries to be read.
I share with her the idea that both fascism and Stalinism stem from the idea that we have been giving it powers over citizens, who have difficulty controlling it.
He received in 2008 the Prince of Asturias Award for Social Sciences, according to the document for representing “the spirit of unity of Europe, East and West, and commitment to the ideals of freedom, equality, integration and justice.”


Neither sun neither death

01 Feb

What we see with Trump, British Conservative thought (BRExit) andComandar French (elections this year with even the extreme right chances to come to power), can in economic terms mean a return to the Wealth of Nations period (classic work of Adam Smith In the year 1776), but there are other possible analyzes and Sloterdijk is one of them.

I read and had to paralyze the reading of the Critique of Cynical Reason for the forcefulness of the work, but gradually I returned realizing that its main endeavor was a critique of “false consciousness” of the Habermasian theory, and I also see it now as the best post -frankfurtians, a post-Marxist school born in the USA that influenced the 60’s (Marcuse, Erich Fromm and others), also lead years not only in Brazil, but in the East and in much of Europe, see the demonstrations in Paris.

In the late 1980s Peter Sloterdijk launched Critique of Cynical Reason, two decades after going to the Indica to study Eastern philosophy, he followed in an up-to-date fashion the steps of Schopenhauer (1788-1640) and Niesztche (1844-1900), and with philosophical works equally “post-illuminist” and critics of modern rationalism.

Now his readers’ interest is in his books on politics and globalization in his trilogy of the already published in portuguese Spheres I: Bubbles, work of 1998; and the next releases in Portuguese is Spheres II: Globes, and after Spheres III: Foams, he was writed in 2004.

In Neither Sun nor Death, Sloterdijk respond his fellow german writer Hans-Jurgen Heinrichs, commenting on issues such as technology mutation, media development, communication technologies.

Also has a good introduction to Sloterdijk´s thinking abourt theory of globalization, and a good critique of the neo-illuminism french currents represented by Giles Deleuze, Paul Virilio and Gabriel Tarde, and also makes connections with heidegger and the indian mystic Osho Rajneesh.








The inflated community

02 Jan

The book in the Brazilian translation of Sphere I – Bubbles, here in 2016, in Germanybolhasmenino in 1998 (Spheren I: Blasen), talks about the Introduction of inspiration for bubbles, but the whole title is: THE ALLIES or the Inspired Community (the capital letter is Of the author), but I reversed the analysis to follow as the author writes.

The title has several spherical inspirations, but the most important is the G.H. Every, from 1887, Bubles, an oil painting of Sir John Everett Millais (1829-1896), where the author speaks of the oval balloon made by his “insufflator” and in the time that of life of a bubble, accompanies the life that Let it escape until it burst “at the same time a sigh and an exclamation of jubilation”.

The bubble, the object created, and its “insufflator, there is a solidarity that excludes the rest of the world” (Sloterdijk, 2016, p.20), and “exist together in a field strained by attentive sympathy.”

But gradually he outlines the purpose of this metaphor, “the child who follows his soap bubbles in the open space is not a Cartesian subject clinging to his or her locus of thought without extension, to observe an extensive thing in its trajectory in space” (ibidem) , In a clear reference to the Cartesian dichotomy between the thing and the extensive thing (res extensa).

Thus raises his first questions: “and what happens to who is not the breath of anyone? Every life that emerges is individualized, is it as such contained in a sympathetic breath? “(Sloterdijk, 2016, 21), the author goes to Schopenhauer’s question:” is it legitimate to think that everything that exists and is thematized would be wrapped in the care of somebody? ” (Idem).

The question you are asking is a reference to Heidegger: what do we mean when we say we are in the world? But it actualizes and reformulates it using the question of necessity: “In fact, necessity is known (Schopenhauer called it the metaphysical necessity) that everything that belongs to the world or to the being as a whole is contained in a breath, as In an indelible sense. Can this need be fulfilled? Can it be justified? “(Sloterdijk, 2016, 21).

Before arriving at the central point of its outline, modernity will ask the question which is a direct reference to Ludwig Wittegestein’s Logical-Philosophical Treaty: “Who first conceived the idea that the world would be absolutely nothing more than the soap bubble Of a breath that encompasses everything? What exterior would belong, then, all that is the case? “(Idem).

The question of modernity and its allies is outlined, which is why I left it for later.

SLOTERDIJK, Peter – Esferas I: Bolhas, Ed. Estação Liberdade, 2016. (Brazilian edition).