Arquivo para a ‘Politics’ Categoria

The possible, but difficult “clearing”

18 May

The concealment of knowledge also hides a concealment of knowledge, without any kind of clairvoyance, access to knowledge becomes attached to mental, logical or ideo-logical schemes that in turn are attached to contemporary thought.

The way Heidegger saw the clearing, it was difficult to assess even for his closest students like Hanna Arendt and Husserl, just to name big names, but in his school of thought many still remain stuck in idealism.

The central problem of idealism, for Heidegger, is that through the a priori categories of understanding, all the properties of objects are determined (as if it were only “logical” to know them) and so beings cannot manifest they are pure essence of what are, out of the “logical”.

Thus, between fundamentalist occultism, clearly problematic, and Western “scientific” thinking, as said by Heidegger “established itself as the only measure of man’s habitation in the world”, said in his text The end of philosophy and the task of thought.

In his text Plato’s doctrine of truth, he begins by translating Eidos (the Idea as it was badly translated) as an aspect, which is not an entity in its mere appearance, as it is immediately perceived by the senses, before showing the being appears and can be captured by the intellect (Heidegger, 2007, p. 3).

The other question pointed out by Heidegger is about the explicit translation of “alethéia” by unveiling and that cannot be identified with “truth”, “the question of unveiling as such, is not the question of truth… we should not translate alethéia by the current word truth ”(Heidegger, 1972, p. 36), and thus“ the statement of an essential transformation of truth is also not sustainable, that is, [Plato’s] transition from unveiling to rectitude ”(Heidegger, 1972).

What this implies is not clearly obvious, but it is the clearing itself (in the middle of the forest), that is, clarity, it is only possible in a space of previous opening, something that appears, a “presentation”.

Said explicitly by Heidegger himself: “The ray of light does not first produce the clearing, the opening, it just travels through it. [It] can only shine if the opening is already guaranteed “, so it is an event in time, and perhaps this time of concealment of the Pandemic precedes a” clearing “.

Heidegger, M.  O fim da filosofia e a tarefa do pensamento. São Paulo: Livraria Duas Cidades, 1972.

________. La doctrina de Platón acerca de la verdad. Eikasia, Revista de Filosofía, v. 12, extraor- dinario I, 2007.


O problema central do idealismo, para Heidegger, é que mediante as categorias a priori do entendimento, determina-se todas as propriedades dos objetos (como se fosse só “lógico” o conhecer) e assim os seres não podem manifestar são essência pura do que são, fora do “lógico”.

Assim entre o ocultismo fundamentalista, claramente problemático, e o pensamento “científico” ocidental, como dito por Heidegger “se estabeleceu como única medida da habitação do homem no mundo”, dito em seu texto O fim da filosofia e a tarefa do pensamento.

Em seu texto A doutrina da verdade em Platão, ele começa traduzindo Eidos (a Ideia como foi má traduzida) como aspecto, que não é um ente em sua mera aparência, como é percebida de forma imediata pelos sentidos, antes de se mostrar o ente aparece e pode ser captado pelo intelecto (Heidegger, 2007, p. 3).

A outra questão apontada por Heidegger é sobre a tradução explícita de “alethéia” por desvelamento e que não pode ser identificada com “verdade”, “a questão do desvelamento como tal, não é a questão da verdade … não devemos traduzir alethéia pela palavra corrente verdade” (Heidegger, 1972, p. 36), e assim “também não é sustentável a afirmativa de uma transformação essencial da verdade, isto é, a passagem [de Platão] do desvelamento para retitude” (Heidegger, 1972).

O que isto implica não é claramente obvio, mas é a própria clareira (no meio da floresta), ou seja, claridade, só é possível em um espaço de abertura prévia, algo que aparece, uma “presentação”.

Dito explicitamente pelo próprio Heidegger: “O raio de luz não produz primeiramente a clareira, a abertura, apenas percorre-a. [Ele] só pode brilhar se a abertura já é garantida”, assim é um evento no tempo, e talvez quiçá este tempo de ocultamento da Pandemia anteceda a uma “clareira”.

Será preciso “Mudar de via” afirma Edgar Morin em seu último livro, a humanidade mudará ?


Heidegger, M.  O fim da filosofia e a tarefa do pensamento. São Paulo: Livraria Duas Cidades, 1972.

________. La doctrina de Platón acerca de la verdad. Eikasia, Revista de Filosofía, v. 12, extraor- dinario I, 2007.



Pandemic´s time of the planet

17 May

The data observed by the Opera Mundi website, there you can see the pandemic numbers all over the world, show that in the pandemic cycles, despite the vaccination that according to the website reached 1.5 billion doses administered on Sunday night (if the world population is around 7.5 billion people) this means 20% of vaccination worldwide, of course it varies in many regions.

India for example, which is the worst case of Pandemic at the moment, is the third most vaccinated with more than 179 million doses, but has a population of almost 1.4 billion people and this gives 7% only vaccinated, well below the world average (above) of 20%. The number of deaths falls, but the number of infections grows.

Brazil with approximately 37 billion vaccines for at least the first dose (the number of more than 50 billion vaccines is added to the first with the second dose, which counts those who took the 2nd dose twice) also means a number below average, with a population of more than 200 million inhabitants (211 in the last estimate), this is 20%, which means on average, but the seriousness of the Pandemic still requires greater efforts.

The purchase of 100 million doses of Pfizer could make us optimistic, if it weren’t for October, and the value of 6.6 billion reais means this means 66 reais per dose, something around 10 euros or 9 pounds sterling in exchange current, expensive price and the vaccine requires special logistics because it must be kept at low temperature (dry ice, refrigerated transport, refrigerators, etc.).

All of this could make us optimistic, but the reality is not quite this, it is observed that even in countries where there was a sharp drop (England and Portugal for example) you cannot let your guard down because the world is a global village and even with few flights people circulate, and a case of infection, and there are new strains of the virus, can trigger the whole process again.

It is time for the planet, we can and we must take a planetary attitude, we have not yet done so, and even regulators, governments and health agencies still seem to fall short of the measures to be taken, for example, in the case of India and in the creation of protocols for travel, a global plan is required.

There is a fair concern that this is done exclusively by political and non-technical-sanitary criteria, which is a fact, but as politics has not helped, we can help politics with sanitary attitudes, in a current language: public health policy.

The campaign is simple and global: vaccine for everyone, global protocols in relation to types of vaccines, by age, type of comorbidity, equitable distribution (for example, reaching 20% vaccination in all countries as a target for this month), we could think 50% by July that it would be an audacious attempt, but doing the math: there will be the production of 3.5 billion doses by July counting all vaccines (we are already at 1.4 billion) does not seem an impossible number.

Vaccine for everyone !!! aid to poor countries and countries of major pandemic crisis.


What do we mean by moral today

12 May

Almost every rational and elaborated basis on morality is based on an idealistic theory, which belongs to both rational thinking to Hegel and Kant, but in both there is already a criticism of pure and empirical rationalism, so what kind of morality is this socially proclaimed.

It cannot be said that it is positivist, nor communal, nor at the other end something merely platonic, the fact that both insisted on distinguishing the approach of practical philosophy both in Kant and in Hegel, where they are distinguished then.

Both set out to undermine the skeptic’s doubts about the possibility of objective judgments and practical requirements; both, moreover, reject positivist derivations of the law, exclusively empiricist descriptions of human behavior and intuitionist forms of justification.

Furthermore, the two philosophers seem to share the same conception of the conditions of human freedom. For both Hegel and Kant, a theory of morality and political rights devoted to promoting the cause of freedom must demand more than just the absence of obstacles to the satisfaction of our animal passions, it must be endowed with a certain rationality (idealism).

For Hegel, as well as for Kant, freedom requires, in addition, respect for the ends that we have as rational natures.

We achieve this type of freedom when our actions are motivated by the law of reason and when the social norms that restrict us are norms that we can rationally endorse.

The difference with Hegel’s system is that it overcomes a certain subjectivity of Kant’s “individual” model, but submits morality to some norm, in general, that which is established by the State, the problem of both is the relativization of the moral question, now trapped to the individual, now attached to the State, ignoring the Being.



Abre-fecha e vacinação

19 Apr

A política de isolamento social e de contenção da pandemia segue uma oscilação que mostra a ausência de uma direção clara, as escolas abririam e não abriram, os feriados antecipados não mostraram eficácia, a evolução tanto da infecção como das mortes continua havendo uma pequena queda nestes últimos dias, espera-se que se mantenha, mas o número é muito alto.

A campanha de vacinação alcançará esta semana o patamar de 50 milhões de doses distribuídas, mais de 32 já foram aplicadas, como envio de 6,3 milhões de doses para todos estados e Distrito Federal, a remessa deve-se a chegada de 3,8 milhões de doses da Astrazenaca/Oxford do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz) e 2,5 milhões da Coronavac do Instituto Butantan.

Em meio cenário a crise política se agrava, as responsabilidades do governo serão apuradas, e o Covidão dos estados também, no Pará foi descoberto um lote de 19 respiradores escondidos atrás de uma parede falsa, apesar de constar da aquisição do hospital, os equipamentos eram considerados extraviados, o Hospital Abelardo Santos, em Belém, fica no distrito de Itacoari, descoberto em 22 de março o governo reconheceu o fato somente no sábado (19/04).

O caso do governo federal é bem conhecido, a política negacionista e possíveis omissões.

No ano passado foram feitas várias apurações e até hoje poucos processos terminaram, alguns como o do Rio de Janeiro, Pará e Amazonas envolviam diretamente os governos.

Espera-se que isto não interrompa o processo de combate ao vírus, as campanhas de vacinação e que as medidas de isolamento sejam tomadas de modo sério, sem contornos políticos e populistas, a morte de milhares de pessoas por dia não poderá nunca ser vista como normal.

Junte-se a isto a necessidade de solidariedade com a população carente que além do desemprego e da carência, tem perdido também parte das redes solidárias que ajudam o socorro emergencial, muitas entidades que trabalham para arrecadar alimentos tem sentido a fuga dos “doadores”.


Vaccination and dangers ahead

05 Apr

Official data from the On Data in World (in graphic) website indicate a total vaccination in Brazil of 10.2 million people up to 3 days ago, while the world average is at the level of 6.5% and in countries like France, Italy and Germany they are inexplicable. rate close to 11% (even the WHO complained).

Only Israel close to 60% and the United Kingdom close to 50% have acceptable rates, in Latin America only Chile reached 30% and Uruguay to 20%, but it should be noted that Chile has a much smaller population of 18 million (less than the city ​​of São Paulo), and Uruguay 3.5 million (slightly larger than Belo Horizonte if counting the cities Betim, Contagem that are neighboring), Brazil is close to 10% counting the first dose according to data from the same site (on Data in World ).

Two dangers strongly threaten the contamination rates: the new strain that spreads more quickly and the cold that should arrive soon, according to experts from Butantã in Sao Paulo, it is not possible to speed up the vaccine production process, but on the other hand, FioCruz in Rio de Janeiro promises to deliver 1 million daily doses, would arrive at the end of April with at least 40 million vaccinated with the first dose (this would be close to 20% of the population), and hope that the cold will delay, not counting the shipments that will come from the abroad and Butantã itself.

Fortunately the weather has been hot, despite cold fronts threatening in the south, the expectation for the next 15 days (until April 20, therefore), is to stay warm. although it is rainy, but there is no correct weather data, the forecasts are not always right.

It is hoped that a vaccination will be able to stop the successive increase of infections, we have broken several records of infection and deaths, and the aggressiveness of the new strain acts in these two aspects.

An innovative drug is announced on the market, and filed the order on Anvisa on March 30, it is a combination of monoclonal antibodies bamlanivimab and etesevimab that was developed by the pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly, and can help in mild cases and people who have respiratory problems , is the first drug really valid in prevention and in mild cases that have respiratory comorbidities, it can reach the market in 30 days.

This medicine has a powerful asset, since it has already been released by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the drug regulator in the USA, in short it is necessary to think of creative solutions and preventive measures cannot be ruled out, of course they are really valid.


Criticism of inadequate reason

30 Mar

Western philosophy lives in an inadequate reason, it cannot be rational to ignore the pain, death and inclement weather of nature and life, life is death and resurrection and without understanding one does not understand the other, in the middle of a pandemic it is observed that not even religious understood this.

In Western philosophy, idealism and its dualistic logic predominate, so pain and happiness complement each other, that is why so much sadism is possible with one’s own body, with human relationships, although now there is a great appeal to empathy, we have already discussed the “third party included ”Of quantum physics and the logic of going beyond me-you.

Epicurus submitted the pain to the tetrapharmakon, the idea that to deny it would be useless so it is to seek the best way to live with it, it is the neurotic terrain of right and wrong, of good and evil, to reach a philosophical plain populated as I would say Espinosa, good and bad encounters.

Epicurus’ first two remedies refer to the intellect, proper to idealism, to undo all the irrational superstitions and fears that cause anguish in men, the death and anger of the gods, that is why the litany God is good, he is , but incompatible with evil and this does not mean the absence of pain, but its transposition to a greater good.

The last two remedies are a hedonistic “ethics”, it deals with the preventive characters of pain and the obtaining of pleasure, they also do not admit pain with a contingency of life, and not everything is inevitable, for example death, and so it remains improper reason.

Camus also addressed the issue, and we had the opportunity to make a post about the Myth of Sisyphus, and his starting point is to find happiness where it is possible in dark times (wars).

If we admit the pain, and go through it, we will find a third go-beyond or think towards the beyond, suggested by Emmanuel Lévinas, which means to move more and more towards the stranger, the mystery and the infinite (another Lévinas theme) and we have already mentioned here the Cosmos and Teilhard de Chardin’s vision of a Christian worldview.

We entered Easter week and with it in the Christian worldview, the sacrifice of Christ replaces the sacrifice of the lamb made by Abraham (in the three great monotheistic religions: Islam, Judaism and Christianity), so the pain enters a new meaning from of which afterlife is possible.



It is serious, but there can be hope

29 Mar

While Europe is experiencing the 3rd. wave, the number of infected and the severity of the disease makes the pandemic a humanitarian crisis in Brazil, the hope is to increase the rate of vaccination.

In Europe, the president of the European Commission, Ursula von der Leyen recognizes that the bloc of the 27 member countries “is not where it wanted” with immunization, and said that efforts should accelerate, despite the 2 billion doses contracted, for a population of 450 million, rates are still below 10%, which is very little due to the effort already made.

While Italy, Germany and France vaccination 10.3% outside the block the United Kingdom has already reached 36.5%, in Brazil close to 13% have already received the first dose, the official data is 15,503,373 for the first dose, while 4,699,784 for the second dose, in a total of more than 20 million, but the rate of infection and mortality grows, if we think that 12.5 million have already had covid-19 it can be said that in number there is a small advantage.

However, it is not so, it would be necessary that half of the population already had the first dose, but looking at the most optimistic case, which is the 38% of the United Kingdom, we see that the way to go is great.

The hope comes from the two institutes that develop the vaccine in Brazil, Butantã in São Paulo and FioCruz in Rio de Janeiro, it is believed that people over 60 years of age may be vaccinating in April, this would lead to a rate of just over 20% in the month, not counting the external contracts that can increase this number a lot, reaching an optimistic rate of 35%.

This is because the promise of 57,179,258 doses fell to 47,329,258 doses, among which the number decreased are Pfizer and Oxford, but with the promise of vaccines coming from abroad this rate could reach the goal expected in May for 47 657 058 just below the plan.

The rate will only exceed that planned in the month of August where more than 82 million doses are expected instead of the planned 35 million, so only in September can a drop in infections and deaths be expected, the health system is expected in trouble to get there.

The hope remains the growth of vaccines available on the market.



The civilization crisis and the third excluded

25 Mar

The fact that we are stuck with dualism, now transformed into political polarization as if in nature and in society there were always only two poles in conflict without a third (or even fourth and fifth options) seems to make no sense with the logical paradox developed by Barsarab Nicolescu and find a parallel only in quantum physics (picture inside).

It is not true, Barsarab’s own text that calls for a Reform of Education and Thought (Barsarab, 1999) indicates that one can see in this change the center of a crisis greater than physical or logical issues, says Barsarab: “One thing it is certain: a great gap between the mentality of the actors and the internal development needs of a type of society invariably accompanies the fall of a civilization ”, or to put it another way, more ontological, between Being and Non-Being there is a Non-Being-being state that penetrates into dualisms and paradoxes.

Barsarab’s letter calling for an education reform, Edgar Morin also asks and others perceived a crisis in modernity as thought and education, the Third Included theorist T, gives a worrying sentence: “The risk is enormous, because the continuous expansion of Western civilization, on a world scale, would make the fall of that civilization equivalent to the fire of the entire planet, in no way comparable to the first two world wars ”.

There is also a linear and monodirectional thinking where the intention is always to polarize and create a “single” and monochromatic path, with the eternal danger of authoritarianism and deviations of power, in order to distend it would be necessary a more open world and where everyone is included. Education must walk and help this context, Barsarab says in his letter: “The harmony between mentalities and knowledge presupposes that such knowledge is intelligible, understandable. But can that understanding still exist, in the era of disciplinary big bang and extreme specialization? ”

The harsh reality of the pandemic shows that we oscillate between true solidarity and a relaxation to face the crisis, and the opportunistic polarization that wants to take advantage of the deaths and deviations from a poorly managed health crisis, in some more countries, but in almost all.

Barsarab’s sentence that seems harsh is not: “Is there anything between and across disciplines and beyond any and all disciplines? From the point of view of classical thought there is nothing, absolutely nothing.

The space in question is empty, completely empty, like the vacuum of “classical physics”, because it is in the void, in the epoché where a true philosophy can flourish, even when it is not (the suspension of judgment, the new horizons beyond the pre- concepts, etc.) is that it is .



The proximity in Ricoeur and Pope Francis

23 Mar

Paul Ricoeur’s quote in the papal encyclical Fratelli Tutti is of a philosophical and theological dimension that few still understood, by separating partners from close ones, inspired by Ricoeur’s categories, the pope dialogues with contemporaneity both with philosophy and with theology and opens a new path for concrete fraternalism.

Although the tendency of Utopian content that the word Fraternity (the name of the encyclical is Fratelli, remember) takes on a new dimension when reading Socius et Prochain de Ricoeur.

It can be said that it develops a true culture of proximity, that is, it is not the friends of that group that I am connected with, of those who share a certain “identity”, the encyclical also clarifies these false concepts of identity that isolate us from others.

Ricoeur’s mention deserves note: “charity brings together the two dimensions – the mythical and the institutional – as it implies an effective way of transforming history that requires incorporating everything: institutions, law, technique, experience, professional contributions, analysis scientific, administrative procedures ”(FT §164), and thus incorporates human realities in the mythical.

It can be said that it is a realistic realism of a utopia of a better possible world, which cannot be reduced to an ineffective religious sentimentality that threatens certain conceptions that both mystique and good philosophy contemplate, going against the Other, proximity .

Another essential point of the encyclical is the misuse of the identity category, the Encyclical will say that “when they cling to an identity that separates them from others” and it is in Chapter III that speaks precisely of thinking

And the Encyclical alerts: “There are peripheries that are close to us, in the center of a city or in the family itself”. (FT §97), and again in Paul Ricoeur we find: “the neighbor is the very conduct of being present (…) the neighbor’s science is immediately blocked by a neighbor’s praxis: we do not have a neighbor; I am the next someone’s neighbor “(Ricoeur, 1968).

It is the misunderstanding of this category that leads bad philosophy to not understand what the other means and to give and this can be seen in the whole history of philosophy in the different conceptions of identity, the concept is in Stuart Hall and also Heidegger’s that identity is the degree of understanding that each one has of their own culture, but the topic is controversial and we will return to it.

Ricoeur, Paul “O socius e o próximo”, in História e Verdade, trad. F. A. Ribeiro (Companhia Editora Forense: Rio de Janeiro, 1968),

Pope Francis. (2020) Carta Encíclica Fratelli Tutti (FT), Vatican. Available in:

Fratelli tutti (3 October 2020) | Francis (




The unpredictable future of the pandemic

15 Mar

It is becoming increasingly clear that the future of the pandemic may be far from what everyone imagines, the number of variants of the virus, scientists are beginning to identify the small variations it makes in its genetic code, and for years epidemiologists have said that we should be prepare for a next pandemic, if we haven’t done it before, now more than ever should be done.

Meanwhile, the epidemic shows no signs of cooling, despite the number dropping, in Europe for example, there was a considerable increase this week, of every 100 infections registered in the world, 41 are from Europe, the Brazilian case we have already revealed is tragic due to the records infections and deaths higher than last year’s data.

The studies on the variants also find a change in its genetic code that is frightening because with each transmission, changes in the genetic code can influence the efficiency of the vaccine (we have already explained the efficacy rates that depend on the “type” of the vaccine), that is it may happen that the next epidemic is the coronavirus itself in one of its mutations.

What to do for now, increase the vaccine and combine it with lockdown, is a cultural fact that will be difficult in Brazil and the restrictions are highly unpopular, but there is nothing else to do, and it needs to be combined with increased rates. vaccination.

Another problem is the humanitarian crisis that can occur, limiting the movement of people means limiting trade, consumption of goods, etc., which in 2020 had a positive fact, since the little circulation of vehicles and the use of non-renewable energies, it caused CO2 emissions to drop by an average of 6% across the planet, and some signs of nature rehabilitation appeared, the presence of dolphins close to the coast, which means an abundance of fish, improved levels of pollution in large cities.

However, it is important to say that the number of deaths grows that had started to decrease, returns to very worrying levels, and new bouts happen again due to the virus variants.

The economy must also be a worrying factor because there are already signs in many countries of social problems, unemployment, poverty levels and related issues: income distribution and impoverishment.

We can learn from this cruel lesson, but still most people care little about what hasn’t directly affected them yet, but it will gradually affect everyone.