Arquivo para a ‘Computer – Hardware’ Categoria

Christmas gift

24 Dec

In December 1947, right around Christmas, three Bell Telephone engineers (William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain) invented the transistor (TRANsfer reSISTOR) that revolutionary communication and later computing, also ICs (Integrated Circuits) have as a base the transitor.

The big event this Christmas will be the launch of the James Webb Space Observatory (jwst, James Webb Space Telescope) from the Kourou space base, in French Guiana, at 9:20 am EDT, which will be taken to the Ariane 5 spacecraft. made at the cost of $10 billion, the most expensive space project in history.

What are we going to look for in space, in addition to other puzzles, the origin of the universe in its early stage, and it’s curious why this happens this Christmas, and why it is so special.

Lights decorate cities even in attention with a possible new wave of the pandemic and also a new flu, they light up hope and make us look to the future and to the beginning of our lives, our planet and humanity.

There is no way to escape from utopians, cosmogonies and religious eschatologies, even if we can solve many enigmas, the philosophical question remains: why there is everything and not nothing.

The answer can only be ontological, there is a reason for being and there is a promising future, where there is hope if we return to the logic of Being, of dialogue and of the encounter with the Other.

The message cannot be any other than that which speaks of brotherhood and peace, both not yet fully achieved by humanity, Christmas reopens this hope.

This is the prophecy that Isaiah announces (Is 52,7 when there will be true peace: “how beautiful they are, walking on the mountains, the feet of him who proclaim and preach peace, of him who proclaims good and preaches salvation, and says to Zion, ‘Reign thy God,’” the message that believed in the coming of the Savior, the birth among men of the Messiah.

The lights in the city not only announce this light visible to the eyes, but those that open the heart to friendship and peace (Jn 1:4-5): “in her was life, and life was the light of men. And the light shines in the darkness, and the darkness could not overcome it”, because a tiny point of light already dissipates the darkness, and this is our hope.

May Christmas renew hopes for a possible and sustainable future for humanity, and may justice and peace reign in a new world.



An oriental philosopher reads the “clearing”

19 May

Byung Chul-Han is a Korean-German philosopher who migrated to the West and does an odd reading of Western literature, in particular the context of networks and new media, studied in his doctorate Heidegger and with this his “clearing”.

He explains what the clearing is in a simple way: “Heidegger’s ‘truth’ loves to hide. It is not simply available. It must first be ‘taken off’ from its ‘veiling’. The negativity of ´veiling´ actually inhabits as its ´heart´ ”(Han, 2018, p. 74) and in this excerpt he quotes Heidegger´s work:“ On the question of thinking ”.

It penetrates what information means, the great input of the current veiled Being, “the information is lacking, on the other hand, the interior space, the interiority that would allow to withdraw or to be veiled. It doesn’t beat, Heidegger would say, no heart ”(Han, 2018, p. 74).

This absence of counterpart, is what Chul Han calls negativity, it is good to explain it well, “a pure positivity, a pure exteriority characterizes the information”, so is the reflection.

As the information of negativity would then be, in the sense of reflection, it is the “selective and additive information, while the truth is exclusive and selective. Unlike information, it does not produce any pile [Haufen] ”(Han, 2018, p. 74).

Thus, there are no “masses of truth” but “masses of information”, it is the “massification of the positive” (Han, 2018, p. 75), so information is distinguished from knowledge, and this is not “simply available”, I would say neither simply because it is complex nor available because it is hidden.

However, the philosopher confuses it with life experience, when he affirms: “not infrequently, a long experience precedes it” (page 75), and affirms only one side of the information: “the information is explicit, while knowledge often takes a implicitly.”.

Clarifying these two confused points, first the question of experience, the philosopher Plato was the first to announce that wisdom, as knowledge of the truth is not the result of age, if it were only in old age people would deserve to be heard, the other question is about tacit information, it exists as tacit knowledge, Michael Polanyi (1958), was one of the first theory, and Collins in the seventies returned to the concept in the scope of scientific communication. For this tacit information, Chul Han also points this out, “silence” is needed.

The deepest clearing the philosopher describes quoting Michel Butor, who gave an interview to Die Ziet on 07/12/2012, which points to the real cause: “The cause [of this] is a communication crisis. The new means of communication are worthy of admiration, but they cause a hellish noise ”(Butor apud Han, 2018, p. 42).


POLANYI, M. (1958) Personal knowledge – towards a post-critical Philosophy. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

COLLINS, H. M. (1974) The TEA set: tacit knowledge and scientific networks. Science Studies, v.4, p.165-186.

HAN, B. C. (2018) No enxame: perspectivas do digital. No Enxame: perspectivas do digital (in portuguese). Trad. Lucas Machado. São Paulo: Editora Vozes.


Towards serverless computing

27 Jan

Among the trends pointed out by Nasdaq, the electronics stock exchange, is the so-called serverless computing, with the transfer of functions to cloud storage.

Clouds start to manage the functions and storage made by servers, computing is more agile and less dependent on mobile devices, which also begin to migrate to the IoT (Internet of Things) and so the general trend may be a digital transformation, not the buzzword of fashion, but in the very structure of the digital universe.

Another consequence will be the transfer and simplification and many functions for the Web, which is confused with the Internet, but it is just a thin layer on it, written through an interpreter (a computer language with high interactivity) which is HTTP.

The creation and execution of applications is thus simpler, but this is not exactly serverless computing as indicated by a superficial literature in the area, but one of the important consequences of it.

Function as a Service (FaaS) technology is different from the application definitions in Clouds (IaaS, Infrastructure as a Service, and PaaS, Platform as a Service), where codes are written without having to know on which server that application will be executed.


Totality and infinit

16 Jan

The complex is fundamental for understanding wholeness, Edgard Morin wrote: “Only complex thinking can civilize our thinking” (Morin, 2008, p. 23), in the absence of a totalizing and comprehensive discourse, complex thinking itself is.

Giordano Bruno was the first to intuit that the infinite was fundamental to the nascent modern thought, but this one took refuge in the rational dualism (objectivism x subjectivism) and in the human finite that does not admit the mystery and the infinite present in the cosmic totality.

Current thinking, thanks to the physical complexity that came from quanta and relativity theory, is launched into the depths of the universe to think about matter and dark energy and their new and eccentric phenomena that challenge current models of physics, science, and maybe religion.

Edgar Morin, before reflecting on the paradigmatic turn, says that the West “the fruitful child of the schizophrenic Cartesian dichotomy and clerical puritanism, also commands the double aspect of Western praxis, on the one hand anthropocentric, ethnocentric, egocentric since it is the subject ( because based on the self-worship of the subject: man, nation or ethnicity, individual) by another and correlatively manipulative, icy “objective” since it is the object ”(Morin, 2008, p. 81).

Without considering themselves dogmatic, arrogant, and self-referential, this thought, even when projecting to the Infinite, even appealing to God and even invoking dialogue, is itself arrogant, the slightest amount of questioning enough to note arrogance.

Now, even for the religious to admit the mystery, it is indispensable to admit the idea of ​​God and the infinite, while for the “rational” thought (not the dogmatic rationalism) to admit the complexity of the phenomena is only to make serious science and to investigate the reality, nature on the one hand, and to admit man’s place within it is the only possibility of overcoming the objectivist and egocentric arrogance of modern thinking.

The infinite that is also claimed by current thinkers such as Ricoeur, Lévinas who explained the sense of alterity before the Infinite: “The idea of ​​infinity does not start from Me, nor from a need for the Self that accurately assesses its emptiness. In it the movement starts from the thought, not from the thinker. ”(Levinas, 1988, p. 49).

LEVINAS, Emmanuel. Totalidade e infinito. Tradução José Pinto Ribeiro, Lisboa- Portugal, Edições 70, 1988.



Quantum teleportation chip

30 Dec

The phenomenon is called quantum entanglement, or teleportation, once made with particles, now with signals was made between chips.
The feat was done by researchers from the University of Bristol and the Technical University of Denmark, where the team was able to send data without the chips being close.
The achievement means a jump in teleportation because it is now coded signals, which makes communication via teleportation possible.
The research paper has already accept to been published for publication in Physical Review Letters and is available on the open prepress access server
The following video explains quantum entanglement:


What is diffusion of innovation

20 Nov

An innovation to reach the market, if it does not fall into disuse that is a possibility, goes through a process called “adoption curve”.
Everett Rogers, is a recognized in this area of communication studies, professor of department and journalism of the University of New Mexico, his book Diffusion of Innovations, already 5ª. is one of the most cited books in the area, the first is from 1962, and the author died in 2004.
Their main argument is that innovation is communicated over time among participants in a social system, and the origin of their theory spans several disciplines and although it has never used the term, it can be safely stated that it is transdisciplinary.
Rogers proposes that four main elements influence the dissemination of a new idea: innovation itself, communication channels, time and a social system. This process depends heavily on human capital. Innovation must be widely adopted to sustain itself. Within the rate of adoption, there is a point at which an innovation reaches critical mass. That can also be understood as the curve of adoption
The theory characterizes 5 advantages for adopting a technology: 1) the advantage of improving an innovation over a previous generation competitor of a product, 2) from a point, a team must improve the advantage relative to its competitor in potential for there to be no return to the previous product, 3) the new product must be compatible with the previous one, not only when installing and operating, but especially with regard to the potential consumer’s lifestyle, 4) relevancy at the time of launch which means a deep understanding of the conditions that innovation finds in the moment it is launched, and 5) what is the complexity or simplicity of using innovation when it is launched, complex innovations can reach a small audience only.
An innovation to reach the market, if not fall into disuse, is a possibility, goes through a process With its successive groups of consumers adopting the new technology (shown in blue), its market share (yellow) will eventually reach saturation level.


Deep Mind Advanced Project

20 Sep

Projects that attempted to simulate brain synapses, communication between neurons, were formerly called neural or neural networks, and had a large development and applications.
Gradually these projects were moving to studies of the mind and the code was being directed to Machine Learning that now using neural networks happened to be called deep learning, an advanced project is Google Brain.
Basically it is a system for the creation and training of neural networks that detect and decipher patterns and correlations in applied systems, although analogous, only imitate the way humans learn and reason about certain patterns.
Deep Learning is a branch of Machine Learning that operates a set of algorithms used to model data in a deep graph (complex networks) with several layers of processing, and that, unlike the training of neural networks, operate with both linear and non-linear patterns .
One platform that works with this concept is Tensor Flow, originated from an earlier project called DistBelief, is now an open source system, released by the Apache 2.0 team in November 2015, Google Brain uses this platform.
In May 2016, Google announced to this system the TPU (Tensor Processing Unit), a programmable artificial intelligence program accelerator with high transfer rate ability for low precision arithmetic (8 bts), which runs models and does not more training as neural networks did, a Deep Compute Engine stage begins.
The second step of this process in Google Compute Engine, the second generation of TPUs achieves up to 180 teraflops (10 ^ 12 floating point operations), and mounted in clusters of 64 TPUs, work up to 11.5 petaflops. 


Why did artificial intelligence emerge?

22 Aug

The long road covered by Artificial Intelligence includes the construction of languages such as Lisp, Prolog, Haskel, but environments like DialogFlow, Watson, and
At the end of the 20th century there was a major crisis in AI, but the emergence of researchers in the Semantic Web resumed study and gradually, subjects like IoT (Internet of Things), Natural Language and Machine Learning (there is no translation, but we could say learning by Machine) emerged.
The fact that scares some is linked to the concept of “intelligence” and “mind.”
This emergency has awakened the five largest technology companies in the world: Apple, Microsoft, Google, Amazon, and Facebook, which have started investing in smart people who can talk to humans.
Now 28% of consumers in the United States currently use some virtual assistant, these devices that integrate the AI technology of a voice assistant with a common home product has had great success, such as Alexa, Echo and Google Home, but the increase of sales to 39% annually were celebrated by companies.
In companies the concern for privacy, the operation is done using cloud storage, companies with sound assistants use different measures to protect the personal information of their consumers, but know that there are flaws in these defenses.
The audio sent to Google and Amazon is encrypted before being transmitted, leaving the data exchange supposedly safe, but the people database needs to be accessed in order for the machine to “develop” its learning ability.
Recently a researcher in the field of information security has demonstrated that it is possible to transform an Echo manufactured before 2017 into a perpetual recording instrument whose audio can be transmitted to a remote location without the user knowing.
To protect yourself from hackers, a good practice is to access your account and erase history of interactions with the services from time to time, but it remains to be seen if it has not been hacked in this period.
Apple’s Siri, instead of associating the recording with the user account, associates the collection of the interaction with you with a series of random numbers.
With or without security, this market has grown and companies are watching, it is irreversible.


Material can help quantum chips

08 Aug

Researchers at the University of Central Florida (UCF) have discovered a type of material that could be used as a “building block” of quantum chips, consisting of hafnium, tellurium and phosphorus, Hf2Te2P.
According to UFC researcher Madabe Neupane, “Our discovery takes us one step closer to the application of quantum materials and helps us gain a deeper understanding of the interactions between various quantum phases.”
The material has more than one electron pattern that develops within its electronic structure, giving it a range of quantum properties. Neupane says that this material will increase computing power for large volumes of data on new devices and will considerably reduce the amount of power needed for power electronics.
The discovery has already attracted companies that are investing in research, Microsoft for example invested in its project called Station Q, the laboratory that is dedicated to the field of topological quantum computing, and Google has teamed up with NASA in an investment that works with quantum computing and artificial intelligence.
Because quantum phenomena need to be better understood so that electronics are totally replaced by photonics and quantum computation, computational scenario changes tend to change rapidly and continuously.
The discovery of Neupane’s lab is published in Nature Communications, and is a big step forward for this change of scenario.


News in Google News

02 Jul

After several announcements, finally in the second half of May Google launched its new application, only now I have been able to take a look at the application that replaces Google Play Nwesstad, now with use of Artificial Intelligence.

The application works on using machine learning to train algorithms that scour complex and recent news stories and divides them into an easy-to-understand format with timelines, local news and stories presented in a sequence according to the evolution of the facts, for example , the start of a football match, its most important bids, the result and the consequences.

This section which are news that the algorithms think important to you have the name For You, follow 3 more sections so divided: The second section is called Manchete, where the latest news and specific topics are presented. Here is a subsection where you can choose to read the news through Full Coverage by Google, where Google splits it into items from a variety of social media sources, letting you know where and when it happened.

The third section shows favorites, such as the top topics the user usually accesses, the AI ​​has great work there, goes to the owner’s favorite sources, saves stories for later readings, and saves searches according to the location of the texts.

And finally the White Play (White Play) which is the addition of the new Google news, which allows the user to access and subscribe services with premium content in news sites.

While a part of the critique continues to duel with the old canned news schemes linked to editorial groups, the world of personalized news evolves