Arquivo para March, 2017

Is there no digital economy?

20 Mar

The technophobes feed these besides other illusions, in fact they make money speaking DigitalEconomythis, but the digital economy already reached the $ 110 billion in 2014, only with the applications Uber, Airbnb and Kickstarter; Not to mention smartphones, tablets and laptops.

These three applications are expected to reach $ 1 trillion by 2017, which is higher than the GDP of many countries in the world and a third of the Brazilian, if we join all applications will probably be higher than our GDP.

Victor Reimann, just 25 years old and one of the partners of the developer and incubator of projects of collaborative economy Engage, with headquarters in Porto Alegre, clarifies that this economy “attracted people first by a need to optimize resources”.

Yuri Faber, creator of Zasnu, which offers a vehicle sharing service, says “The global recession has made people aware that collaborative consumption is good for lowering costs and good for everyone.”

I know in Berlin, Justice has already banned some services from Uber, also in Australia in the city of Melbourne, the city already fine drivers who receive money to transport passengers intermediated by the application, but in Brazil I know several friends who travel dividing the trip, and The number of people who do this will make any inspection impossible, after all they are not Uber cars or other services, of course you need to have a good car.

The Airbnb has hosted more than 120 thousand people during the World Cup, of course taking advantage of the speculation of the hotel network in addition to precarious services.

The digital economy will grow even more, and even those who make money speaking ill of it, could have their earnings computed as a digital economy, thus generating a curious paradox: speaking ill of the digital economy makes it grow in real numbers in this.


The hermeneutic ethics

17 Mar

If romantic ethics deviated little from the modern model that is fixed in the interpretationDialogo within the context and cultural appropriation, we have already said that alterity and more than this the understanding of the Other (we have already explained the capital), is something that promises to put incessantly Dialogue, relativizing methods that imply putting the correct one-sided.

The word we use without explaining Verstehen (“to understand”) in German already expresses this: being in someone’s place (für jemanden stehen), addressing others and speaking for others, it would be said using.

We hope that it has become clear that neither will consciousness be possible in the sense of a full identification with itself, and also in the historical sense, nor the reach of an absolute truth, without a concrete opening to the Other, from this comes an “ethics”.

These limits are also in the idea of ​​fineness defended by hermeneutics: no one can fully know himself, let alone the other, but open to the infinite.

The “hermeneutic ethics of dialogue” comes from a development of the idea of ​​practical wisdom present in the three Aristotelian ethics, in the form of practical rationality (phronesis), which in reality is a Platonic concept, and we know that Aristotle was one of his disciples .

The theses that Plato developed revolved around the idea of ​​”good” (ἀγαθόν), but not as the basis of an ontological perspective, but as a question for the ethical in the proper sense, while Aristotle had the greater intention of criticizing the theory of ideas , In addition to providing a basis for his theory of phronesis, that is, to concretize this ethics in human status. Its ethics Nicomaqua is already ontological, where it put the modes of behavior (ἦθος), with rules depended on the mutability and limitation of the human being and the way of being human behaves, so it must be established in its variable mode of listening to another attack , So language and dialogue need to be appropriate and respected.

In Gadamer, theory is not in opposition to practical activity, for both are put in a presentification of praxis, the highest mode of being of the human being, gives as proof that we are absorbed (aufgehen) by something, as we linger (verweilen) Observing it and feel certain “pride”, but this is emptied soon if there is not the reflective act of life.

He will state this very clearly: “hermeneutical knowledge must refuse an objectivist style of knowledge … But ethical knowledge, as Aristotle describes us, is not an” objective “knowledge either. Here again, knowledge, not simply in front of something, must be verified; Knowledge is in advance involved and invested by its “object”, that is, by what it has to do. “(Page 49)

But it makes a profound difference with technical knowledge, when he states: “No one can ignore that there are radical differences between ethical knowledge and technical knowledge. It is evident that man does not dispose of himself as the artisan disposes of his material “(page 51)

What Gadamer will call ethical knowledge, and makes it supported in is far from that Hegelian “know-for-itself”, because “precisely in that” perfect application “that unfolds as” knowing “within a given situation” (pag. 55), just as “the just signifies the opposite not of error or delusion, but of blindness” (idem), and it is precisely this blindness that “loses control of itself and, dominated by the dialectic of passions, More oriented towards the good. “(Idem).

Thus, it will almost define ethics, hermeneutics is a dynamic process unrelated to definitions, will say that ethical knowledge: “opposes precisely to a purely technical knowledge. Thus, there is no longer any sense in distinguishing between knowledge and experience … an absolutely primordial form of experience, in relation to which all other experiences may be secondary, not original. “(P.55)

GADAMER, H.G. The issue of historical consciousness, 3rd. Editing by FGV SP, 2006 (pages is brazilian edition).


Awareness in the hermeneutic circle

16 Mar

Gadamer’s analysis is that the humanities (I definitely replace the German term HermeneuticCicleGeiteswissenschaften) is to differentiate what Mish and Dilthey called “free distance to self” as the real problem of the humanities in philosophy, which was the true presupposition of Heidegger, and not just the “problem of being”.

According to Gadamer, “he finds himself in the connection between the” life “which always implies consciousness and reflexivity and” science, “which develops from life as one of possibilities” (page 12)

Indicating that existence as “being in the world” (Heidegger’s well-known expression) “reveals the Verstehen as the possibility and structure of existence” (idem). The reason for appealing to Heidegger is clear, since “the human sciences acquire an” ontological “valence that could not remain without consequences for their methodological self-understanding [and] … they are closer to human self-understanding than the sciences Natural. The objectivity of the latter is no longer an ideal of unequivocal and binding knowledge. “(Idem)

In the second lecture he will address the question of Dilthey’s traditional hermeneutics, which we have already touched on in the previous post, and then he will return to Aristotle, who made him recognize the “particular interweaving of being and knowledge” and then to address Nicomachus Ethics. Our last theme, but without first failing to recognize “the scientific ‘scientific’ justification of the modern society in which specialization reigns” (page 13).

The last topic closes in the second, in discussing Dilthey’s “romantic” hermeneutics, at the second conference, takes up the traditional “hermeneutical circle” (here already thinking of Heidegger who outlined it), “presents itself under a new aspect and acquires importance fundamental. “(Idem)

Affirming that the hermeneutical circle is rich in content (inhalt ich erfüllt) when gathering interpret and its has in an interior unit in total movement (procedural whole). Understanding implies a pre-comprehension and this in turn is prefigured by a “determined tradition that lives the interpreter and that shapes his prejudices.” (Idem) For Gadamer, every encounter implies a “suspension of my preconceptions” (idem) that by “meeting with a person with whom I learn my nature and my limits” (idem), but his revolution is that “it is impossible to content In order to understand the other, that is, to seek and recognize the coherence immanent to the meanings and demands of the Other “(page 14), the capital is mine because there is confusion in speeches about it, and it is Gadamer himself who clarifies: “A call is always implied.” (Idem)

Its conclusion is contrary to every resource and discourse that does not use true alterity, a serious dialogism where the other, really the Other, is the reason of our capital.

Gadamer goes so far as to say: “that I am willing to acknowledge that the other (human or not) is right and to consent that he prevails over me” (Idem), could conclude but … say there friend !


The Problem of Historical Consciousness

15 Mar

In 1957 Hans-Georg Gadamer was invited to lecture for a quarter at the HermeneuticaRomânticaUniversity of Louvain, in 1963 he appeared in French under the title Le probleme de la conscience historique, and there was still no major work of the hermeneutic philosopher “Truth and Method”.

After it appeared in 1969 an Italian version of the text, but it was in the English version of 1975, that according to Gadamer he “rediscovered with himself” reviewing the original text for publication in English, of this edition was made the translation into Portuguese, like 1st edition in 1998, and the edition I read is from 2006, 3rd. Edition made by FGV (Getúlio Vargas Foundation, Brazil).

The book is therefore a powerful preamble for anyone who wishes to read Truth and Method, where the problem of historical consciousness and its relation to the method goes back to Schleiermacher and his retelling by Dilthey, Gadamer being “his ideal is to decode the Book of History” (Gadamer, 2006, p.11).

The lectures of Gadamer, which were the basis of this booklet, reflect the “problem of introducing the hermeneutic problem from the perspective of Husserl and Heidegger” (page 10), a problem which was therefore treated in a special way in Germany, where thanks to Wilhelm Dilthey and what is called his Lebensphilosophie “(idem), the philosophy of life.

The problem of interpretation according to the laws of nature, in german Geisteswissenschaften (Human Sciences), Gadamer clarifies that in Truth and Method he deliberately began to invoke another example, “represented by the experience of art and the hermeneutic dimension, which certainly intervenes in the study Art scientist, but above all in the experience of art “(page 10).

He goes with this to distance himself from Dilthey, who set out to construct an epistemic base for the Geiteswissenchaften, but was not seen as the philologist clarifies, but as “a theorist of the method of a school history who did not see” the understanding of texts and other fragments of the past as their ultimate goal”, Gadamer wrote quoting Dilthey.

What Dilthey hoped was to reconcile the interpretive sciences with their scientific objectivity, the initial idea was to give hermeneutics a universal method.

Gadamer clarifies his position: “to show that self-understanding in relation to the sciences is not really consonant with his fundamental position in terms of Lebensphilosophie” (page 12), and clarifies that the human possibility of reflective thinking “does not coincide in Truth with the objectification of recognition through the scientific method. “(Idem)

It will clarify that the connection between “life” when one speaks of consciousness and reflexivity and “science” (he put in brackets), to develop from life is one of possibilities.

Hans-Georg Gadamer, “The Problem of Historical Consciousness,” in “H.-G. Gadamer,” special issue, Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 5:1 (1975) (the number of pages is Brazilian edition).


Christianity and Idealism

14 Mar

If the essence of idealism is the separation of object and subject, I make a purposive inversion,Saint the essence of Christianity for Ludwig Feuerbach is separated from the subject and the sensible objects, and for Feuerbach the consciousness of the object may be, though distinguished from self-consciousness , A consciousness that coincides immediately after the religious object, because of its “transcendence” is exactly what makes it return to the consciousness of Self.
For Feuerbach, and the sensitive object is outside the being (although the ontology here is only an appeal), the religious object is in it, it is an intrinsic object, and it does not abandon it, its moral conscience leaves it, it is an intimate object , And even the most intimate, is the closest of all.
His critique of Theology, using idealism presupposes essentially a critical judgment, the “difference between the divine and the non-divine, between what is and what is not worthy of worship,” so with this dualism it is possible to play everything The essence of the divine in the common ditch of the Ideal.
The consciousness of God is man’s self-consciousness; this is Hegelian idealism made religion: the knowledge of God is man’s knowledge of himself.
The negation of the subject is regarded as irreligion, and its relation to sensitive objects, a negation of the subject, is the atheistic religion of Feuerbach, to which Marx will return calling it the Old Hegelians, and seeks to make its inversion, now of the object to Subject, this is the new “religious” version of the Young Hegelians, like Marx.
“It is no longer about Heaven to Earth,” Marx said, but now “from the earth to the sky,” that is, from the object to the subject, from the work force and from the production to its divinization.
If for Marx, fetishization was the separation of labor from its instrument of labor and merchandise, fetishization can be reification (rex – thing) or objectification, where it sees the separation of subject and object, in religious fetishism is separation Of consumption (sinful) and individual (seen without autonomy) to which the religious must “watch”.
The just relation to money, to work, to health and education, is nothing more than an overcoming of the idealistic religious vision, its consummation in a man in a harmonious relation with the world, and in this case also the beauty, poetry and life Healthy perspective.


















Bolhas, nossos círculos fechados

13 Mar

Se diversos autores, como Paul Ricoeur e Emmanuel Levinas falam sobre a questão do Outro Bolhas1como emergencial e existencial para nosso tempo, a mudança que está em processo, deve nos tirar das bolhas, os círculos fechados nos quais nos metemos.

A pergunta essencial que fez Martin Buber, em  o Eu e o Tu, e o Tu aqui é algo mais sagrado que o Outro, é também a pergunta que faz em Esferas I Peter Sloterdijk, onde diz que as crianças parecem nascer com uma espécie de “instinto de relações”? ele vai desenvolvendo ao longo do livro a ideia que não nascemos sozinhos e, deveríamos então através de  trabalho cooperativo e da linguagem nos socializamos, e fazer brotar este instinto interior.

Sloterdijk rejeita o princípio liberal, idealista e de origem cartesiana onde  indivíduo isolado busca sua razão existencial, ele parte de uma ontologia onde o primitivo é sempre Dois.

Mas não é idealista ao ponto de dizer que este dois é fundido, poderíamos dizer usando o conceito de Gadamer que ainda não é a fusão de horizontes, o indivíduo que sai da placenta e esta é morta, sai da sua bolha primordial, e vai se encontrar de certa forma separado.

O mundo pré-moderno tinha um modelo para que esta separação não fosse total, permanecendo a subjetividade ou intimidade, alguns povos plantavam a placenta com as árvores outros, como os egípcios faziam travesseiros  como no caso dos faraós para serem enterrados com eles.

Somos vistos na autossuficiência do modelo liberal, mas também este modelo é criticado, por exemplo, Rousseau, que buscou uma vida isolada do não pensar, como na experiência do lago, em seu escrito dos Devaneios do caminhante solitário, compatível como seu modelo do homem do bom selvagem, em que se inspiram muitas democracias modernas.

Também a esperança de reconquistar uma “vontade geral”, um estado mais forte, onde se proclame uma espécie de “religião nacional” que eclodem nos nacionais em todo o planeta, não são senão uma visão contemporânea, de uma autossuficiente das “bolhas” de diversos tipos de fechamento social em “comunidades”, mas com um princípio egoísta dentro


Librarian’s Day and a Guard

11 Mar

Tomorrow, the 12 of March is the day of the librarian in honor of the birth date of the LibraryDaylibrarian, writer and poet Manuel Bastos Tigre, day created by Decree 84.631 of 09/04/1980, signed by the then president of the Republic João Figueiredo.
The writer and engineer Manuel Bastos Tigre was born on March 12, 1882, being an engineer, went to do an improvement in electricity in the United States. There he met the librarian Melvil Dewey, who left him interested in the profession. At age 33, Manuel went to work with librarianship.
He was first in the contest for librarian of the National Museum of Rio de Janeiro, and from 1945 to 1947 worked at the National Library, then took over the direction of the Central Library of the University of Brazil.
Librarians have a protector, for Catholics, Saint Isidore (or Izidro in Castilian, country of their origin, was in fact Visigoth converted to Christianity).
Isidoro was the first Christian writer to attempt to compile a summa of universal knowledge in his masterpiece, Etymologiae, also known by the classicists as “Origines” (abbreviated as “Orig.”).
This encyclopedia – the first epitome of the Christian type – consisted of a huge compilation in 448 chapters divided into twenty volumes.
In it, Isidorus, in a concise manner, summarized manuals, “miscellanea” and Roman compendiums, continuing a tradition of abstracts and summaries that characterized Roman literature of Late Antiquity.
Because of this, many fragments of classical teaching that would otherwise have been lost were preserved; “In fact, in most of his works, including the” Origines “, he contributed little more than the cement role linking fragments of other authors, as if he knew of his own shortcomings and relying more on the ‘stilus maiorum’ of That on its own, “recalls Katherine Nell MacFarlane, who translated her work into English.
Isidore was canonized by the Catholic Church in 1598 by Pope Clement VIII and declared Doctor of the Church in 1722 by Innocent XIII.
In Dante’s Paradise (X.130), Isidore is mentioned among other theologians and Doctors of the Church, and is also considered patron of Librarians.

Why do they kill the prophets?

10 Mar

Time of passage, during a period of transition, is in this period when true and Heraclitofalse prophets arise, but who they are and they were in history many and a few true.

A characteristic trait is the coherent of words and life, the theory x practice paradigm is one of the false prophecies that did overcome much absent theory of life and with an often perverse practice, what puts the prophets of our time in prominence is consistency Of his deeds, the dignity of his life and his fruits.

I do not want to talk about religious, although we find a few, very close to philosophy for example, Edith Stein, who was an admired student of Husserl, was Jewish and became a Christian and was recently canonized by the Catholic Church.

We can speak of another student of Husserl, not so admired by the master, who was Ernest Heidegger, and more recently Paul Ricoeur, Emmanuel Lévinas and also Hans-Georg Gadamer.
But I want to speak of someone unique, still alive and full of energy in his 95 years: Edgar Morin, educator and thinker of great intellectual fertility.

It defends instead of the extreme specialization of modernity, simplification and fragmentation of knowledge, something that made it one of the greatest intellectuals of our time: that of complexity.

The simplification has led to false prophecies, words that are attributed to Einstein, to the pope and some prominent figure that does not correspond to truth, is the dishonest way and legend of killing our contemporary prophets, throwing them into the common grave of words ” Simple and easy “that explain nothing and do not admit the complexity of the contemporary world.

Nothing more complex than life, beauty, the modern world has seen the emergence of the description of nature by fractals opposed to the ideal of number (a mere abstraction), the beauty of wild and natural life, among them the rich “biomes” of which it speaks a bralizian religious fraternity campaign of this Lent.

By showing his true nature to his disciples, Jesus transfigures himself on Mount Tabor and says:

“Do not tell this vision to anyone until the Son of Man has risen from the dead” (Gospel of Matthew, 1-9) not only because it was contrary to a vision both triumphalistic and exhibitionist, but because he knows that false prophets do not want


Brazilian crisis: liberal thinking and the reformist

09 Mar

Yes the reformist, because if there is a revolutionary thinking, that is, a radicalCriseBrasileiraEn change of system, the exit of the corrupt elite from power and structural changes in Brazilian society, I do not know where it is, and has nothing to do with: there is right government they said: Hasta la vista baby.
The perverse logic of the structural and also conjunctural crisis in Brazil is that neither is analyzed, the model basically linked to the agribusiness and auto industry has been bankrupt for a long time, oil reserves made at a high cost still do not attract the necessary investors, The eradication of poverty is scandal, although there are advertisements of the type: the new middle class, etc.
But the most misleading analysis is cyclical, for example, international consumption has decreased significantly, which means less demand and less export, China that grows even in the middle of the crisis, reduced its purchases by almost 40% between January 2014 and 2015 , Which can be verified by note Brazilian Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade.
We have an industrial park increasingly denationalized, once again, by the centrality granted to the production and export of primary goods and to external investors, with Brazil paying the invoice.
If we look at the sectors with the greatest fall in employment, the graph above shows that it is the processing industry and construction, that is, little to do with what comes from outside.
It can be observed in diverse journalistic articles that almost 50% of the export agenda revolves around crude oil, iron ore, soy, sugar and coffee, that is, we sell the product without adding value, and they often return To the country already with the due industrialization, there is no note on this subject, in fact I found one published in the Diário da Liberdade, that is to say, in a brazilian little known newspaper.
There are no profound reforms that attack social, educational, economic, and political problems (political reform as who? With those involved in the Lava Jato?), Which could result in structural changes in a city that is dependent on agribusiness and old colonelist elites (chiefs of agricultural states in Brazil), Without changing the structure, political change will not happen.
From the pre-electoral mistake of saying that there was no crisis, to the post-election to ask for “sacrifices” to the people without any counterpart, grows an opportunist and adventurous right that says the post-truth “we have nothing to do with politics,” Now balls … it’s her bastard kids.


Iceland: where there is gender equality

08 Mar

In an Annual Report on Gender Inequality in the 2016 edition Iceland is close toRuandaFilipinasNicaraguaBurundi achieving full equality between men in women in the four pillars assessed (Economic Participation and Opportunity, Access to Education, Health and Survival and Political Empowerment).
As 87% of the gap is closed and this is one of the countries that registered the greatest advances among the 144 investigated by the study, curiously along with other countries with great development, Finland overtook Norway, which fell to third place and is followed by Sweden, although the relationship with development is not direct, is suggestive.
It is not direct because the 4th. Place for Rwanda (upper left photo), the 7th. Philippines (top right), the 10th. Of Nicaragua and the 12th. of the Burundi (inferior photos) are surprising, indicating other factors regarding gender equality.
According to the European Union, a study on Iceland, 77% of women are now employed (the average in the EU countries is 58.6%) and 33.7% of them have completed higher education (against 25.8% Of the EU average), we must recognize the struggle of women there, a major one in 1975 when 90% of Icelanders refused to do anything from the corporate to the family environment to attest to their importance.

The situation of Brazil is shameful 85th position of 2015, but jumped to the 79th in 2016.
But the general data in the reports are staggering, claiming that gender equality in the labor market will only be achieved in the market in 170 years, that is in 2186.
The gap between men and women is 59%, still far from being closed (100%), the largest observed in the world since 2008, that is, we walked back last year and the previous 7 years, see the 2015 report