Arquivo para June 2nd, 2022

Ontologic Dualism and Spirit in Hegel

02 Jun

In opposition to the classical ontology Being and Nothingness, in Hegel they do not exclude each other in absolute affirmation or negation, they are integrated in him within a rational discourse, thus “being” can be totally empty and identifies itself with nothingness, thus its first determination. logic is Becoming.

Following this logic, which comes from Kant and further from Parmenides, Being is and not Being is not, creates the idea of absolute spirit which is identity eternally in itself, which knows by itself, and thus the infinite substance is one and universal, not as particular and finite, being divided by means of judgment in itself, in a knowledge in which it exists such.

For the sophists, knowledge must also be related to pleasures and the good life, the discourse is in Plato’s Philebus, which has the intervention of Socrates that will give meaning to Being.

For both art, religion and philosophy, for Hegel, they have different levels of reality, these correspond to the meanings of nature, spirit and idea, all are manifestations of the absolute spirit.

Just as classical idealism allows for the separation of subject and object, Hegel’s ontological idealism allows absolute spirit taken to the level of religion, which has nothing to do with classical religions, or with dialectical materialism, so the old and new were differentiated. Hegelians.

Religion in Hegel can be characterized as something that starts from the subject belonging to him, the absolute spirit, that is, his subjectivity, says in his work:

“The subjective consciousness of the absolute spirit is essentially, in itself, a process; whose immediate and substantial unity is faith in the witness of the spirit as the certainty of objective truth. Faith, which at the same time contains this immediate unity, this unity insofar as the relationship of those different determinations has passed into devotion, into implicit or explicit worship. For the process of suppressing [aufhebn] in spiritual liberation the opposition of confirming through this mediation that first certainty, and in gaining the concrete determination of that certainty, that is, the reconciliation, the effectiveness of the spirit”. (HEGEL, 1995, p.340).

For those who want a deeper understanding of religion in Hegel, which he called “absolute religion” in reference to absolute spirit, the work Phenomenology of Spirit is indicated.

HEGEL, G.W.F. Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences In: Compendium. Translation in portuguese: Paulo Meneses and José Machado. 2nd ed. Brazil, São Paulo: Vozes, 1995.

* aufheben is used by Hegel to explain what happens when a thesis and antithesis interact, and in this sense it is mostly translated as “suprasumption”.