Arquivo para April 4th, 2024

Substance and the essence of Being

04 Apr

Substance is an essential concept of both metaphysics and ontology, although modernity wants to characterize it only as that which is material, etymology says sub instance, or from Latin it literally means “what is below”, but it can also be “ derived from”.

Dualism sees everything as opposition and affirmation, a primary substance is one that does not have the opposite disposition, for example, a man, a tree or an animal, its opposite does not exist, but it is not yet what designates Being, since these change, they are born with some original form and later modifying they are the foundation of something “derived”: an accident, a sub-instance of man, tree or some animal.

In the 17th century René Descartes proposed a division between body and mind, dividing substance into two categories: res extenso, which refers to physical matter, and res cogitans which refers to mind or thought, the simplified dualism as body and mind , in this century there were opposing ideas: the “atomist” monism of Leibniz and the natural monism of Spinoza.

In the 18th century, this idea underwent two reforms: Hume’s, who criticized the substance as something essential, being just an idea created by the human mind, to give meaning to experience, and Kant’s idealism, the substance is not a thing in itself, but a category of human understanding.

Still within the limits of Kantianism, there remain two possibilities of conceiving a being or an object, the immanent sense, which remains within the scope of possible experience, but acting only through the senses (concepts or cognitive principles) and the transcendent, which admits an immanent god , which permeates all reality and is not separated from matter.

The transcendent is then what takes the subject (hence it is called subjectivity) to the object (objectivity) allowing the concept or cognitive principle.

The idea of ​​a person, or three people in the Christian case, is one that gives being (does not separate it from the object and experience) its transcendence and thus allows spiritual ascesis.

In the Christian case, I draw attention to the Resurrected Jesus who orders and roasts a fish and eats it, not out of necessity, but out of possibility, so he does not affect the substance although he conceives it.

The passage says (Luke 24, 40-43): “And saying this, Jesus showed them his hands and feet. But they still couldn’t believe it, because they were so happy and surprised. Then Jesus said, “Do you have anything to eat here?” They gave him a piece of roasted fish. He took it and ate it before them”, if he didn’t need it because he ate it, remember the last supper.