Arquivo para a ‘Politics’ Categoria

Promote good and peace

14 Jun

The convictions and theories that lead men both to the civilizing process and to its opposite, barbarism, stem from inner motivations and they had different contexts at different times in history, following Freud’s reflection in his analysis of the “malaise” says:

“We see that this feeling of the I that the adult has cannot have been the same from the beginning. It must have gone through an evolution that understandably cannot be demonstrated, but we can construct with a certain degree of probability” (FREUD, 2010, P. 12).

But before carrying out a historical analysis, he starts from intrauterine life, what Peter Sloterdijck also sees as a primordial sphere, he still does not separate the Ego from the outside world, but learns to do it little by little, “in response to different stimuli” , but part of an interior.

Freud points out: “This is how an “object” is initially opposed to the I, as something that is found “outside” and only through a particular action is forced to appear. Another incentive for the ego to detach itself from the mass of sensations, for it to recognize an “outside”, an external world, is given by the frequent, varied, inevitable sensations of pain and displeasure that, in their unlimited duration, the pleasure principle seeks to eliminate and avoid”. (FREUD, 2010, os. 12-13).

This will explain his isolation and self-centeredness, but if he does not advance into adulthood and does not know how to live with contradictions and contempt, he will remain in this “childish” circle, in the bubble where everything seems to revolve around him and made for his pleasure.

And he continues: “The borders of this primitive Pleasure-I cannot escape rectification through experience” (p. 13), otherwise the tendency to isolate oneself will arise and this is the difficulty of promoting good and social peace, which it includes the other, society and peoples.

Thus, those who promote peace, well-being and social dialogue are more adult, more mature, and those who promote war, hatred and intolerance are more childish.

The fact that, from family upbringing to adulthood, difficulties are not imposed and people are taught to live with them, with contempt and losses, has created a vicious and self-centered circle of bubbles, where peoples and cultures cannot coexist without war and without tolerance.

The fact that, from family upbringing to adulthood, difficulties are not imposed and people are taught to live with them, with contempt and losses, has created a vicious and self-centered circle of bubbles, where peoples and cultures cannot coexist without war and without tolerance.

There continue to be institutions, NGOs and people that promote dialogue, peace and are clearly opposed to war, lack of freedom of expression, dictatorships and autocratic cultures.

Happy those who promote peace, those who promote social well-being and cultivate the empathy.

FREUD, S. O mal estar na civilização (1930). In: FREUD, Sigmund. in: O mal estar da civilização, leituras introdutórias e outros textos  (1930-1936). Obras Completas. volume 18. Trand. Paulo César de Souza. Brazil, São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2010.


Culture and the Merely Instinctive

13 Jun

In analysis of the book malaise da civilization, Freud correctly analyzes what is instinctive to want to dominate the other, in his psychological analysis it is with the id that prevails in childhood and it is possible to demonstrate that every civilizing process somehow deprived the satisfaction of human beings and peoples in some way.

He clarifies at the beginning of his work: “it is difficult to escape the impression that in general people use false measures, that they seek power, success and wealth for themselves and admire those who have them, underestimating the authentic values ​​of life” (Freud , 210, p. 10), clarifying that generalization should be avoided.

Although he initially denies a judgment about religion, in a supposed dialogue of letters with an interlocutor, he describes what “he would like to call the sensation of ‘eternity’, “a feeling of something unlimited, without barriers, as if ‘oceanic’ ‘. It would be a purely subjective fact, not an article of faith; it does not bring any guarantee of personal survival, but it would be the source of religious energy that the different churches and systems of religion take hold of, conduct through certain channels and also dissipate, without a doubt” (idem).

The author makes an anthropological, sociological and, to a certain extent, clinical finding that demonstrates both the constructive and destructive nature of man as a function of life and death drives, written in the period between wars (1918-1939), reveals the effort to prevent impetus hostile to the human species overcame the barrier of civilization’s superego.

Freud thus expressed the fear of war in his time: “[…] human beings have reached such control over the forces of nature that it would not be difficult for them [to] resort to them to exterminate themselves to the last man” (FREUD, 1930, 2010, p. 79), so the systematizer of psychoanalysis seemed to see beyond his time, seeing the limits of horror in our days.

In fact, the civilizational humanizing desire is not specific to this or that religion, but when Christianity calls men and women to be “Salt of the earth and light of the world” it is so that, in addition to the power, the destructive capacity that peoples and nations have, these forces are used for the progress of all humanity and not for a particular group or social vision.

The technologies and vital forces taken from nature cannot serve any purpose other than to provide well-being to the greatest possible number of people, this is the meaning of life and it is based on the salt that gives taste to food and life. light that illuminates the people (the Himalayan salt in the photo).


Freud, Sigmund. (2010) O mal estar na civilização (Civilization and its Discontents) (1930). In: FREUD, Sigmund. Civilization and its Discontents, New Introductory Lectures and Other Texts (1930-1936). Complete works volume 18. Translated by Paulo César de Souza. Brazil, São Paulo: Companhia das Letras.


War and humanitarian actions

12 Jun

The explosion of the dam in the region of Nova Kakhovka, region of Kherson, aroused a stronger humanitarian feeling due to the disaster that is also environmental and that affects all residents of that region, including the Crimea that is Russian domain.

Despite being a huge and dangerous challenge, Ukraine is the victim of bombing almost every day, many humanitarian organizations help people who live there or who are returning (a large number decided to take the risk), according to the NGO Zoa, help from various NGOs reached around 5.5 million people.

One of the destroyed regions in the north, which borders Russia and Belarus is Cherniguive or Chernigov, there the NGO Zoa helps rebuild life and gives assistance to people, this is a way to encourage people to continue living there (photo ZOA credits).

Iceland has severed relations with Russia, Putin vows to retaliate.

Certainly, life in Ukraine will never be the same again, and generations will remember this horror as they remember the Holodomor (1932-1933) in the Stalinist period, one of the reasons that separate peoples who are ethnically close.

The war enters a period of possibility to escalate to other countries and explode into a new world catastrophe of a global war, Russia has already moved “tactical” nuclear weapons to Belarus, a clear threat to the countries that help Ukraine.

Attempts to establish peace or a ceasefire are increasingly desperate and with little chance of success, but they continue to happen, at this moment they are heroic.

The painful and dangerous stage represented by the Ukrainian counter-offensive and the Russian threats, represent the limits of an even more cruel and dangerous total war, many countries are already taking a stand for a possible intervention and support for one of the sides in this insane war.

The appeal must be made to common sense, true humanitarian values ​​and the danger of an unprecedented civilizational crisis.



Dialogue and diversity

09 Jun

The clash between two Hegelian conceptions of the state and the absence of dialogue and new horizons are among the causes of the civilizational crisis.

Both the modernist old Hegelians and the new revolutionaries point to a vision of the state with a single discourse, absence of dialogue and tolerance, this is the root of the crisis.

What we notice is the superficiality of this fundamental problem, each one creating truths that they think are universal and sometimes are even bizarre, as they are only at the level of ideas and do not correspond to reality, they do not contribute to a real way out of the crisis of civilization.

Every day, “wise men” of some kind emerge who already have the solution to major problems involving leaders, nations and cultures that have developed, in general taken root and have great difficulty in dialoguing with other worldviews.

Coexistence in diversity is fundamental for a democratic society, when only a vision of the world and a way of administering the state is imposed a part of the population is outside this dialogue and will not see any way out other than rebellion, at the level of the state it means war.

We have lived through two world wars, the result of a colonialist conception of the state, however the current one is more serious because it is a vision of imperialist hegemony of opposing forces.

It is true that there are social forces striving to open a path of dialogue, but in the diplomatic field it has failed, not for lack of proposals, but for discreetly aligning themselves with one of the conflicting sides.

In the religious field this also occurs, the Pharisaic view that it is not possible to dialogue and see how important it is to live with “sinners” and “tax collectors” (those who mismanage the state or are corrupt today) is described in Matthew 9,11 -13:

“Some Pharisees saw this and asked the disciples: “Why does your master eat with tax collectors and sinners?” Jesus heard the question and replied: “Those who are healthy do not need a doctor, but the sick do. So learn what it means: ‘I want mercy and not sacrifice.’ Indeed, I did not come to call the righteous, but sinners “.

The sacrifice of millions of innocents takes place in a war because there is no force that dialogues with the sin of conflict, hatred and war without human and moral limits (in photo, the explosion of the dam in Nova Kakhovka, Kherson region).

Without tolerance and dialogue, no peace is possible, and civilization is currently experiencing a crisis.



Civilization and dissent

06 Jun

There is “An Evil in Civilization” wrote Sigmund Freud in 1929, after his appeal reached where he predicted the 2nd. World War, at this moment extrapolates the cultural and is almost exclusively psychic, reason and high thinking are not in fashion, values ​​are inverted, what remains is the couch.

At a time like this, everything around us gets worse, it’s not just the economy and politics, spending on medicines and doctors increases, educational and justice capabilities are distorted in defenses and accusations with the help of lawyers or public defenders without changing the course of dissent, the time and content for educating dialogue, criteria and reason is reduced.

Also in the educational and social areas; the excess of actions and attempts at models, which are motivated by misunderstandings on both sides, theoretical models and teaching methods, live with the difficulty of facing dissent and often result in the total loss of hierarchy or sense of value, the difficulty of accept (or exercise) what would be authority.

At the same time that authority is confused with authoritarianism, disorganizes the school mission and often prevents public discourses of discussion and responsible dialogue from being exercised, values, even spiritual ones, collapse, everything seems to collapse in a cascade.

Sometimes all that remains is to listen and remain silent, sometimes it is necessary to correct with courage, but dialogue is always possible, and patient listening ponders even when it differs.

It takes models that correspond to life, to ethical and moral social interaction, to save empathy and mutual respect, when only some want respect that they do not offer to others, there is no way to start a fruitful dialogue process.

There are niches of civilizing coexistence, there are peoples and places where dissent has not settled, where hatred has not won and hope still lives.

Finding and giving value to these little lights that illuminate the civilizing night is fundamental, otherwise doctors, psychiatrists and educational methods will not be functional, they will have no life.



The war beyond territorial limits

05 Jun

With very limited attempts at peace, the war in Eastern Europe threatens to go beyond the borders, which makes the limits dangerous, both the attempt to invade Russian territory and destabilize Moldova,which now considers being a member country of NATO (its constitution prevents it).

Russia already has weapons and troops in Transnistria, a narrow strip in northern Moldova, while Soviet groups with support from Ukraine begin to launch attacks inside Russian territory.

While Russia’s land and sea access to Moldova is limited, the government of Moldova’s President Maia Sandu has accused Russia of using “saboteurs” disguised as civilians to stoke unrest amid a period of political instability, but Russia would gain access to southern Ukraine, leaving it more besieged and fragile.

The Ukrainian counter-offensive so far seems not to have taken effect, the Donesk region that would be a possible target has not proved fragile, with Russia defending its positions.

In terms of international diplomacy, an ideological alignment begins to grow, the so-called third way, which China and Brazil would also be part of, are increasingly closer to the Russian discourse of “conquered” territories and the discourse of peace is weakened .

Europe will hold a new meeting to discuss Ukraine’s entry into the Eurozone, it seems more plausible than entry into NATO, since in its statute no country at war can enter, it would be a serious exception and Russia would understand a declaration of war open.

Open because the sending of fighter jets and weapons to Ukraine is already a declared support, the countries, however, allege that it is for the “defense” of the territory, and for this reason the entry into territory is not well regarded by the NATO countries, it was even a condition for sending fighter jets to Ukraine.

The week will be decisive with the discussion of the countries of the Eurozone, and the counter-offensive of Ukraine, for the time being many attacks on Kiev, some of which hit children and a clinic.

The signs of peace are increasingly difficult and less effective, what happens is a strong alignment at all levels, from the economic to the political, each side tries to strengthen itself.






Hegel and the relationship with the Absolute

31 May

Hegel’s relationship with the Absolute is important because although it is not evident, it is present in most religious and power concepts today.

For Hegel, the spirit is only spirit insofar as it is for the spirit, manifesting itself, thus its form of Absolute is representation and not a Being.

By form it is understood the different moments of the concept that are divided into particular spheres or particular elements, in which each particular element the Absolute is exposed.

There are stages for Hegel, of elevation of certainty to truth, in idealism this is asceticism. Consciousness in general has in the external object only one object; that which is self-consciousness which has the self as the object of thought; and finally, the unity of consciousness or self-consciousness when being and thinking become identical and the Spirit contemplates the content of the object as itself.

Hegel adds, dismantling the relationship of consciousness with the Other in the elevation of Truth: “In effect, the In-itself is consciousness, but it is also that for which it is an Other (the In-itself): it is for consciousness that the In-itself of the object and its being-for-an-Other are the same. The I is the content of the relationship and the relationship itself; it confronts an Other and at the same time surpasses it; and this Other, for him, is just himself; With self-consciousness, we enter the homeland of Truth” (Hegel, 2012).

An important passage in Phenomenology, which introduces Hegel’s most important concept, is the passage from consciousness to self-consciousness. In order for consciousness to leave the aporia of facing something that it cannot understand through the categories undertaken so far, Hegel uses the idealist posture of admitting that subject and object, being both units formed from the internalization of differences, have the same structure, infinity is just this object for consciousness, its “transcendence”.

Thus for-itself it is neither the passage in relation to the Other, nor a spiritual asceticism, it is only a representation in consciousness, this indeed a despiritualized asceticism.

Hegel, G. W. F. (2012). Fenomenologia do espírito. 8. ed. Brazil, Petrópolis: Vozes.





Alienation and absolute spirit

30 May

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (Germany, 1770-1831) is considered the last of the modern philosophers and who writes in a systematic way, where the theory forms a body.

The understanding of what alienation is becomes absolute, both in Hegel and in the philosopher Marx, pure thought becomes sensitive thought, aiming at a material realization in the form of work, and if we alienate ourselves, we separate ourselves from the pure essence and open the way for a separation between ideal and real, which unite in what Hegel called Absolute Spirit.

It is in the power relationship that both find themselves winning and being defeated that they see it: “You are the power that is above this being; well, this being is the power that is over the Other; therefore, you have this Other underneath you: this is the syllogism [of domination]” (HEGEL, 1988, p. 130).

The idealistic dualism becomes diabetic, the idea of ​​master and slave does not value one of the self-consciousness more than that of the other, in chapter IV he speaks of two self-consciousness that are confronting each other, thus dialogue and the fusion of horizons is not possible, but opposition.

“Therefore, the relationship of the two self-consciousnesses is determined in such a way that they prove themselves and each other through a life-and-death struggle. They must fight this fight, because they need to elevate to the truth, in the Other and in themselves, their certainty of being-for-itself. Only by putting one’s life at risk, freedom [is conquered]…” (HEGEL, 1988, p. 128).

Hegel did not destroy or abandon religion, he just rewrote it in his own way: “Religion is the way in which humanity is aware of the truth and it is for everyone, whereas philosophy is not accessible to all people (HEGEL, 1988, p. 106).

He even states that religion is necessary, in which the content must become objective for the sensitive consciousness and then, through reflection, be understood in the form of the universal, that is, of thinking (HEGEL, 1995, p. 133).

Hegel, G. W. F. (1995)  Introdução às Lições sobre História da Filosofia. Porto: Porto Editora.

Hegel, G. W. F. (1992). Fenomenologia do Espírito. Trad. Paulo Meneses e Karl-Heinz Efken. Brazi, Petrópolis: Vozes.

Hegel, G. W. F. (1988) Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion: The Lectures of 1827, One-volume edition. Berkeley: University of California Press.


The Russian counter-offensive and threat

29 May

The week promises to be tense in the war in Eastern Europe, Ukraine has announced the start of its counter-offensive and Russia is threatening retaliation for Western aid in armament for this new phase of the war.

Peace is a long way off, now it’s really about the occupied territories the point of contention, and the whole question of the threat of borders and NATO advance is no longer the point, even if it is touched, the four partially occupied territories: Lugansk, Donesk, Zaporizhzhia and Kherson are claimed by both warring countries, as well as Crimea.

After several countries announced arms and financial support for Ukraine, Russian threats escalated and threatened with “strategic” nuclear weapons, but any war on one of the NATO countries is immediately declared war on all and the conflict could escalate.

In the province (oblats) Belgorod in Russian territory was the first conflict inside the country in this war, right-wing and anarchist anti-Putin groups appeared on the scene, indicating that something is already happening inside Russia, the Russian government says it is under control, however evacuated the region.

The scenario is quite worrying, because the scale of the war and a possible conflict on the soil of NATO countries could mean an open start of a third world war, the Russian threats do not seem like a bluff, but a response to Western aid that prolongs the war and gives survival to the conflicting Ukrainian forces.

The displacement of nuclear weapons from Russia to Belarus and warships in the oceans indicate that the danger of responding to the West is real and could happen.

Although in the war in Ukraine it was demonstrated that there is a war capacity to intercept Russian hypersonic missiles, with nuclear charges no matter where they are detonated they will have a devastating effect on the environment and human life.

It remains for those who desire peace to ask that conflicts cease and that men return to serenity and respect for human life and nature.


G7 meeting and Russian breakthrough

22 May

Reunited in Hiroshima, the G7 meeting was held: United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Italy, Japan, France and Germany, to which some countries were invited, including Brazil, Australia, India, Indonesia, South Korea, Vietnam, Cook Islands (president of the Pacific Islands Forum) and Comoros (president of the African Union), Zelensky’s presence was as a special guest.

The countries reaffirmed their support for Ukraine, condemning the invasion, but Zelensky’s expected meeting with Brazilian President Luís Inácio Lula da Silva did not take place, concretely on the war, only American support promising more funding for weapons.

On the battlefield, Russia registered an advance in Bakhmut with the support of the mercenary group Wagner, who were praised by Putin, but the real takeover of the region is still controversial, Ukraine claims that there are still battles in the surroundings, in short, the war will continue and not s and knows in fact the limits it will still have.

The Ukrainians had celebrated the interception of the fearsome hypersonic missiles, and only one hit the country’s soil, it is still uncertain what kind of counteroffensive will be carried out, the Battle of Bakhmut may just be a bait already taken by Russia, the fighters and powerful tanks have not yet been used.

What is worrying is that on both the Russian and Ukrainian sides there is a real danger of the use of chemical and even nuclear weapons, Zelensky said that he would win the war before “that event” and on the Russian side there is open talk of the battle of Armageddon, Russia condemned the delivery of fighter jets to Ukraine.

In the diplomatic field, little progress has been made, Russia wants the territories it has already conquered, including Mariupol and a strip of eastern Ukraine, in addition to Crimea, which has been considered territory under Russian administration since 2014.

Hypersonic missiles with nuclear charges, increased army recruitment, food security and China’s alignment are concerns.

The scenario is still one of war and there has not been a more emphatic proposal for peace, the world continues with fears of a wider war.