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Morality and its diverse concepts

13 Feb

We think of morals as moralism, Puritanism or “certain” Christian morals, as a whole it involves love and so it also involves dialogue, but morality is even more confused because it mixes with Kantian idealistic morals and state morals, the so-called “justice”.

Hellenic morality, of classical antiquity, is a fusion of Greek morality when it spreads through Asia Minor and the Mediterranean will meet the Roman “laws”, which is a nascent state morality, but separates from it as a form of stoicism.

This period was called by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen (1808-1884) for the first time Hellenic, and include among the thinkers Plotinus, Cicero, Zeno and Epicurus, they keep geometric and astronomical notions that merge with moral ideas, we know great phrases of this period, but not thought like Droysen did.

It can be synthesized in two currents, moral individualism or “inner” morality and Plotinus neoplatonism, which is similar to the thought of Augustine of Hippo, but different in terms of teleological morality, for Augustine, evil is the absence of good, not the opposite.

Kantian morality is essentially individualistic, “acts in such a way as to be a model for others” while state morality will be the rules that managed the social contract (previous post), Christian morality as current since the time of Jesus can be pharisaic and traditionalist (what is called fundamentalist), in essence it should be universal.

Loving everyone, including enemies, is not what most religious moralists do, their essence is still the “fight against evil” and not their overcoming through love and never hate.

 

 

Between Vertigo and Two Popes

04 Feb

Brazilian democracy does not yet have depth and maturity, everything is polarized between two exclusive points of view and both authoritarian, but neither is the case of Democracy in Vertigo with a clear interpretation of the facts of the young director Petra Costa, nor Dois Papas (Two Popes) under the direction of Fernando Meirelles, are good directors and have a view of the facts.

I start with Fernando Meirelles because it was his interview at Roda Viva (Brazilian TV program) that encouraged me to talk about the Brazilian Oscar nominations, which should make us all proud, although we may disagree, we need to learn this democratic right, both have cultural foundations.

Meirelles explained his vision of Francisco, which would be the original script of the film, which gradually became the dialogue and the admission of papal mistakes, both made mistakes, as we all do in life, but both manage to dialogue and look at the future of the church and man.

Brazilian democracy lacks this to admit the mistakes of the past, but it is clear, first of all, to know it well, otherwise this will never be possible and in this sense I value and liked the film by Pedra Costa.

In fact, it is necessary to know her story, Elena, her first film has what characterizes her and seems to be the guiding thread of her style, puts her “gaze”, which is clear by putting in the documentary she makes a swirling dance , reminiscent of the deceased sister and closes in a close-up of her eye, I mean, she sees herself putting her vision on the facts.

Seeing the debate, and remembering the films of Meirelles O Fiel Jardineiro (2005) and Cidade de Deus (2002), I see that the debaters (in tv program) know little about his work and are fixated on their own polarized opinions about the film, I also highlight the little trendy but excellent film “Essay on blindness” (2008) that would fit very well for what happens in Brazilian culture.

Both Petra’s documentary and Meirelles’ film have emotion, good images and photography, in short they are good, but most will stay with the polarization and not with the dialogue that art seeks.

 

Still identity

03 Feb

Philosophy conceptualized the question of identity using only the logical principle, A must be A and cannot be non-A, but the very question of “being” has a metaphysical and ontological basis because what it means to be A or not to be, while Being this logical identity is only self-identity.

So cultural and religious groups that seek their own identity can only define themselves as being if they are in relation to non-A, this second principle is the difference, even Hegel says that it is this negativity that can allow what reflection to be A can have in itself.

Heidegger after explaining this principle of logical identity A = A, stating that “each A is himself the same; she says before herself is each A himself the same. In each identity resides the relationship ‘with’, therefore, a mediation, a connection, a synthesis, the union in a unity ”(Heidegger, 2006, p. 39), let us explain better using Heidegger himself.

He immediately explains that in Western history, contrary to what is imagined and said, identity “appears, through the history of Western thought with the character of unity” (idem), and it is not a “tasteless emptiness of that that, in itself devoid of relations, persists in monotonous uniformity ”(idem), that is, it is diverse, there is and the difference persists.

Since then this idea of ​​identity of the same, of us closed in groups, of false collectivity and diversity persisted, the reasons are equally historical, as Heidegger states: “only the philosophy of speculative idealism, prepared by Leibniz and Kant, founds, through Fichte, Schelling and Hegel, a place for the essence in itself synthetic of identity ”(ibidem, p. 39).

Thus, explains Heidegger: “it remains forbidden to think of representing the unity of identity as monotonous uniformity and abstract from the mediation that prevails in Unity” and concludes: “Where this happens, identity is represented only abstractly” (ibidem).

This of course is not without an ontological negativity, as the being is obliged to demand his difference, his negativity and often does so in a radically challenging way, because there is an absence of mediation, what is done in the abstract is to speak of the diverse, of the different, but in the concrete it ignores it, expels it as soon as it manifests itself as an Other.

Heidegger, M. (2006) O que é isto filosofia – identidade e diferença (What is this – philosophy – Identity and difference). RJ, Petrópolis: Editora Vozes.

 

Humility and Authority

10 Jan

Nietzsche’s stereotype about contemporary morality by establishing the difference between that of slaves/flock sage ness, humility and piety and that of the lords that is that of joy, inventiveness and life, may seem exaggerated but it is that idealism created, and was strengthened by the statutes of the state, the Individual and reductionist scientificism.

The Kant philosopher of idealism proclaimed two ideas about humility, the first about moral humility that “is the feeling of smallness of our value, compared to the law” and the second that is “the claim that, through renunciation, acquire some moral value, hidden moral value”, with a little analysis it is clear that it is a false humility, used for power.

It is possible to establish a fair relationship of authority with humility, although this relationship is not simple, it is possible when done as a service, detachment and potential for it to exercise, so it is not a mushy humility, since it is not necessary to be aware of authority.

The biblical example is very illustrative for this, Jesus’ authority before the people and the disciples was never made as a power structure, but with the authority of those who know the value and “potential” he has to exercise it, but by asking to be baptized by John the Baptist and washing the feet of the apostles exercised a humility of true authority.

Contemporary society needs less authoritarianism and more authority with humility.

 

Golden Globe Winners

07 Jan

The highlight is the winner of best actor Brad Pitt in Era once in Hllywood, who had two fair Anthony Hopkins nominations in Two Popes and Al Pacino in The Irishman, best actress went to Awkwafina (The Farewell) who had the nomination of Emma Thompson (Late Night) , the awards can reverse at the Oscars, although the Golden Globe is always considered a preview.
Best dramatic film was for 1917, which won best director also Sam Mendes,
where the Irishman, Joker and Two Popes competed, I didn’t watch the winner, but i had posted that I expected a surprise, which happened, best comic or musical film went to Once time in Hollywood, which deserves to be seen because it also won best screenplay.
Joker won a consolation award with the best soundtrack, i didn’t see the film protesting the praise of violence and an attempt to justify human wickedness in times of autocrats and dangers of war I consider inappropriate for all ages.
The Golden Globe sits an numerous list of award-winning, best actress in series went to Phoebe Waller-Bridge, best actress in miniseries Michelle Willaims, Best actor in a miniseries for Russell Crowe, etc. appear those competitions between children who give medals to All.
One last highlight is the best foreign film for Parasite, those who watched really are impressed with the film.

 

in Balsamão, away from the hustle and bustle

19 Jul

The movement to rest, to meditate and to dive deep in the Being, is a process of alienation of the political, social and economic crises. .
One can and should recover life from day to day, but with renewed energy, at the suggestion of a friend arriving in Portugal Marians of the Immaculate Conception.
It stands on top of Mount Morais, which is one of the five levels of the world, and the second is more important than Psalm 124, which says, “As Jerusalem surrounded thereby, protect your people / agora and forever.”
Climbing the terrace to the belvedere, with the Sierra de Bornes around, the olive groves of Chacim in the background, and the Abilheira thermal baths below, the tons of sunset are seen in this sunny period.
The story of the Polish book Casimir Wyszynski (1700-1755) described it as follows: “Here we are surrounded by rivers, fields, orchards, vineyards, meadows, olive trees and fruits of various kinds, and on this hill there are forests, trees, beautiful oaks.”
He is being formed by a monastery there, who already lived and called Brother Casimiro with his companion of grace Joao de Deus, who accepted and dressed to integrate a new order.
Does the desire to retreat and meditate to hear the deep voices in us, is also what Jesus means to care about his faith? Jesus and not to help the services of the house, seeing Jesus rebuke her (Luke 10,42): “Martha, Martha! You are worried and anxious for many things. But one thing is necessary. Mary chose a better place and this is not the one.”
It takes time to breathe, to rest and re-establish as energies.

 

Worldview: soul, feelings and wisdom

12 Jul

One can think of soul as mind, as consciousness (it is only a reflection), or identity, according to post about Giddens this leads to interiority in a restricted sense.
That is why we call it the Noosphere, the sphere of the mind or the outside, in a sense of vision, feelings and wisdom, being limited to a worldview, which is evolving.
It is not possible to have a broad worldview, without a broad soul, more than a soul-world, a universal soul in the sense not only anthropological, but cosmological.
Feelings have a great appeal in the contemporary world, as functional logics have become much of the engaging of thought, it is possible and easy to manipulate opinions and people through these resources, but they are dangerous without soul and wisdom.
Wisdom is the most critical element of the noosphere, there are those who believe that through feeling and soul can walk quietly, there are therapies and even online courses to produce happiness, well-being and other promises without any wisdom, the result in short term is commendable, but in the long run it will prove ineffective will lack such sustainability.
Wisdom is also critical because many currents of thought and diverse forms of culture can lead to reductionism, and this will bring in the contemporary world a lack of seeing the Other, sometimes there is even intention, but the result is the result of the restricted world .
The teachers of the Law were in the time of Jesus, the Pharisees who knew the scripture, but whose practice was distorted, one of them addresses Jesus to ask how to have the eternal inheritance.
The great spiritual argument of Loving God is a resource of a certain kind of ignorance, but a good Bible reading is enough to realize that it is false, is in Luke 10: 26-27, and Jesus said to him, “What is written in the law? How do you read? “He replied,” You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul, with all your strength and with all your intelligence; and your neighbor as yourself! ”
Jesus immediately binds the heart “feelings” to the soul, because it knows and respects the interiority, from where the soul drinks, and ends by asking for love of neighbor, the Other.

 

The reduction of the divine to human environment

28 Jun

It is possible to deny the existence of God, the argument of the evidence is naive, being neither logical as some modern rationalists wanted, nor human as some German idealists wanted and nor ontological as presented by Saint Anselm.

There is a truth that comes from Socrates that says that it is not with men, but among men, this means that it is both ontological and complex at the same time, and one can not deny the historical existence of Jesus, whether by his historical birth at a time when sense was obligatory, for this was born in Bethlehem, and the record of his death and crucifixion which is told by historians of the time, including Josephus and by Jewish historiography.

But what Nietzsche, born in a family of Lutheran religious has seen beyond his time, is a philosophical and historical evidence of the death of God, through his human epiphany through the historical figure of Jesus, at least to Christianity, while God can be thought of innumerable eschatologies present in almost every culture so as not to be exhaustive, for even the so-called barbarian peoples had some form of divinity.

But the cry of Nietzsche’s madman is the realization of the construction of idealist and positivist philosophy that he wished to take as a single discourse on reality, Thomas Aquinas and other medievals were realistic as a philosophical current, now has a dark sunset.

From this isolationist, individualistic and separatist philosophy of the world three forms of collective heresies follow: a merely human God, a purely divine God, and a total absence of the third divine person: the Holy Spirit, for whom there is no forgiveness.

This sin is not the mere denial of God, but its concrete negation is the negation of the Other. Teilhard Chardin says about the inclusion of the Other that this is the “divine medium”, the typical mystique of our time, which can also be expressed as “where two or more are in my name” (Mt 18:20), which is a “and you who say that I am” (Mt 16:15), which follows several passages of the relationship with the World and with God.

One can say that there are two reductions: the merely human and the merely divine, but the main reduction is the ignorance of a third reduction which is that of the action of the Holy Spirit. In the reduction of the divine, Jesus in miracles almost always asked for a description or made allusion to the faith of the healed, the gifted or just the wonder of contact like the blind Bartimaeus, the prophet Ana, Simeon, the paralytics, lepers or the woman to whom he directs word.

True eschatology sees not only principle or end, but both in relation to the daily life of human life, Teilhard Chardin makes reflection in the book The divine medium (1957): “the slowly accumulated tension between Humanity and God will reach the limits fixed by the possibilities of the world, and then it will be the end … that we should expect not as a catastrophe but as a ‘surrender’ to the world to which we must collaborate with all our Christian forces without fear of the world, because their spells could no longer hurt those to whom he has become, beyond himself, the Body of him who is the One who comes.”

Like the evangelist Luke (Luke 9:20), Matthew also repeats Jesus’ question to the disciples, Mt 16:15: “But who do you say that I am?”

CHARDIN, T. O meio divino (The Divine medium: Essay of inner life). Lisbon: 1957. (in portuguese).

 
 

The Monotization of the World

14 Nov

So begins the text of Stefan Zweig on his impression of the contemporary world: “Everything is becoming more uniform in its outward manifestations, all flush with a uniform cultural scheme. The characteristic habits of the individual people are being worn, the native clothing giving way to the uniforms, the customs becoming international.
Countries seem increasingly to have slid simultaneously to each other; the activity and vitality of people follows a unique scheme; cities grow more and more alike in appearance. “(Zweig, 1925)
With this quotation I also begin the presentation booklet with Dr. Jônatas Manzolli, Professor of Arts at Unicamp, in our joint work: “Transmediatic architecture of the Ode To Christus Hypercubus”, which is presented on fryday at the Palácio de Ceia in Lisbon, with the pianist Dra. Helena Marinho and the soloist Beatriz Maia, both from the University of Aveiro.
This small report intends to present, besides the ode, Photographic work and animation that relate music, images and a hologram in 3D dimensions with an imaginary space hypercube that extrapolates this dimension, inspired by the work of Salvador Dali: Christus Hypercubus.
It is for that reason inspired in the Mystical Manifesto of Salvador Dali of 1950 is a decisive phase and that changes the very conception of Salvador Dali, it can be said for a post-surrealism, in which the mystical influence united the new quantum conception of the emergent Universe (1952) (photo), the Disintegration of Persistence of Memory (1954), The Last Supper (1955), and the Discovery of America (1958-59) are works of this phase.
The Artefacto 2018 event takes place in Lisbon at the Ceia Palace, on November 16 and 17, with several other works that can be found on the event’s website.

ZWEIG, Stefan (1925) “The Monotonization of the World”   Disp. em: germanhistoryDocs.gh.dc.org .

 
 

Simplicity and depth: modern proble

01 Nov

I learned in childhood with the simplicity of my father that there may be wisdom and deep thought where there is no erudite culture, reason is very simple, some people have been immune to the contamination of rationalist, enlightenment and idealistic arguments.
This is because much of the common sense has in mind these reasonings, for example, the mechanistic view of cause and effect relationship, no longer true with quantum physics, the arguments used much as contemporary self-help is contested by the poet Fernando Pessoa: “wanting is not power”, for the simple fact that there is the Other, but in the poet’s argument:
“Whoever could, wanted before he could [only] after being able “, but concludes:” whoever will never be able to, want, “might add to the meekness of the previous post.
As for depth, it is not a thinker or a philosopher who reads thinkers or philosophy, but who has learned through listening and reading training, also to meditate, to think of contemplation, almost impossible in noisy and anxious times.
You can think when you have time for this, when you can feel the Aroma of Time, says in the book by this name Byung-Chul Han: “the aroma is not of a timeless eternity”, but of a strategy of duration, we would say of time dilation by the contemplation and acquiescence of Being, so necessary to modern life.
This may seem to be too costly, to use the time not to “spend” it not to “use” it, but rather to use time in a non-consumeristic or utilitarian way, such as the time of Being.
And simple people, because they have learned in their simplicity to appreciate a landscape, a flower or even a good song or a beautiful picture, are actually educated to be.
I remember my father in his childhood saying, “It is better to light a candle than to curse the darkness,” then it seemed provincial and too simplistic, but it was pure wisdom: the glade.
In biblical terms, it is my hermeneutic interpretation of the “poor in spirit,” in a sense that lets facts pass clearly and meaninglessly and plunges into the essentials. Said the multifaceted artist Leonardo da Vinci: “Simplicity is the ultimate degree of sophistic