Arquivo para August 2nd, 2017

Aspects of phenomenology

02 Aug

Both the so-called “pure” sciences and other experimental sciences departconsciencia-intencionalidade from empirical data or “practical” hypotheses to develop their postulates, Husserl warned that the instability of empirical data as well as much of the theoretical postulates do not provide the necessary rigor as regards To philosophical inquiry.

In essential aspects, positivist science or its field of analysis to the experimental, or considers as “phenomenon” regions that are veiled by some methodological rigor limiting a general analysis more comprehensive and not explanatory of certain phenomena.

What Husserl understood as a “comprehensive analysis” is that which refers to consciousness and this in turn is based on experiences (Erlebnis) of the world occur in and through consciousness, henceforth its postulate “all consciousness is consciousness of something”.

It is in this perspective that Husserl takes from his master Franz Brentano his most essential category of intentionality, so intention is a general characteristic of this consciousness.

This is the first point in the analysis of the phenomenon, so different from the Cartesian cogito which gains a new meaning from the intentionality (the consciousness of something) that, contrary to being “clear and distinct” as Descartes wanted, is directed (intends) to something.

In addition to the intentionality Husserl considers intuition and apodic evidence, being the intention of an object (the example is a book on the table), there being the “meaningful content” (Bedeutungsintention) of something, then “we mean intentionally” (meinen) some Object, without even considering its presence,

Intuition is then the fulfillment of an intention, then it may consider “evidence” to be the consciousness of intention, therefore it is intuitive but insofar as there is a “consciousness of the phenomenon”, and in this sense it is apodictic, ie it is self-evident , there is no need for empirical evidence.

A last aspect is the hylé, the “subjective matter” that composes any perception, although there are the “hiletic data” that would be “constituted by the sensible contents, which comprise, besides the external sensations, also the feelings, impulses, etc. ” (ABBAGNANO dictionary, 2000, page 499). Are not only the “matter” upon which consciousness is given, and are not empirical.

Then appears the Husserlian epoché, which is the parenthesis, we will explore later.